Two Examples of Extremely Solid Set-ups (and a third that was pretty good as well)

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Alice remembers who she saw yesterday.Match the examples and Stylistic Devices/Fine open-faced boyepithet

Match the examples and Stylistic Devices The hall applauded metonymy

Match the examples and Stylistic Devices.He took his hat and his leave zeugma

Match the examples and Stylistic Devices She was a damned nice woman oxymoron

The belles-lettres style the drama

Publicistic style business documents

Scientific prose Brief News Items

Official documents Business Letter

Terms belong to super neutral vocabulary

If bookish words are used in colloquial context they characterize the speaker as a well-educated person

A delibarate exaggeration of some quantity or quality is hyperbole

The sentence “The long arm of the law will catch him in the end” contains hyperbole

Match the examples and Stylistic Devices.He took his hat and his leave zeugma

the context allows to realize two meanings of the same polysemantic words without

the repetition of the word itself. play on words

A description of an object or an idea as if it were a human being is metonymy

In the sentence “Bill and me figured that Ebenezer would melt down for a ransom of two
thousand dollars to a cent” we come across metaphor

The stylistic device in the sentence “Bill gets down on his all fours, and a look comes in
his eye like a rabbit’s when you catch it in a trap” is similie

The sentences belonging to the newspaper style are Home Secretary Leon Britain is set to announce a major new crackdown on crime

The sentences belonging to the belles-lettres style are I did not see George again till just before my death, five years ago

The style of the sentence “Ice will form water atO C”-. scientific

The sentence “Police believe the robbers may have had inside information” can be
in the. article Newspapers

The text of constitution represents the . official document

The literary (formal) structures are Paul’s brother is older than he is

Match functional styles and substyles. emotional prose the belles-lettres style

Match functional styles and substyles advertisements Newspapers

Match functional styles and substyles the essay publicistic style

Match functional styles and substyles military documents scientific prose

Match functional styles and substyles. emotional prose the belles-lettres style

Match functional styles and substyles advertisements Newspapers

Match functional styles and substyles the essay publicistic style

Match functional styles and substyles military documents scientific prose

Indicate the sentence, which constitutes a simile She sings like Madonna

Archaisms may be used in a literary text create the historic atmosphere

A trasfer of the name of one object to another with which it is in some way connected is metonymy

The sentence “Mr. Boffin looked full at the man, and the man looked full at Mr. Boffin”
contains chiasmus;

. presents identical structure of two or more successive clauses or sentences. parallelism

Rhetorical question is a statement in the form of a question which needs no answer

A comparison of two things which are quite different, but which have one important
quality in common is similie

In sentence “I never lost my nerve yet till we kidnapped that two-legged skyrocket of a
kid” we come across epithet

The stylistic device in the sentence “There was a town down there, as flat as a flannel-
cake, and called Summit, of course” is similie;

The phrases belonging to the style of technical instruction are:Pull out the telescopic antenna

The sentences belonging to the style of technical instruction are Turn it clockwise to turn up the volume

The belles-lettres style the drama

Publicistic style business documents

The phrases belonging to scientific prose style are Meters and indicators for synchronizing

Match the examples and Stylistic DevicesThe long arm of the law will catch him in the end personification

Match the examples and Stylistic Devices Passage after passage did he explore; room after room did he peep into parallelism

Match the examples and Stylistic Devices The kettle boiled metonymy elliptical

Match the examples and Stylistic Devices Very windy, isn’t it?”- “Very” Sentence

Match the functional styles and substylesPublicistic Styleoratory

Match the functional styles and substyles Newspaper headlines

Match the functional styles and substyles the Belles-lettres Style poetry

Match the functional styles and substyles official documents legal documents

Match the functional styles and substyles official documents

scientific prose essay

Jargon words are used within a certain professional group to show that the speaker also belongs to this group

Slang is used to show that the speaker shares the same idea as are possessed by his communicants

A word or a group of words giving an expressive characterization of the object described
is epithet

The sentence “I would give you the whole world to know “contains hyperbole

. joins two antonymous words into one syntagmaoxymoron

Metonymy is a transfer of a name of one object to another with which it is in some way connected

A sentence where one of the main members is omitted is elliptical sentence

In the sentence “I went out and caught the boy and shook him until his freckles rattled we
come across” hyperbole

The stylistic device in the sentence“Adead leaf fell in Soapy’s lap.” That was Jack
Frost’s card. Jack is kind to the regular denizens of Madison Square, and gives fair warning
of his annual call is personification

The sentences belonging to the style of technical instruction are: Press “Time check” to display the present time

The sentences belonging to the newspaper style are A Syrian official called for abolishing the border with Lebanon

The sentence “In the quietness of these winter evenings there is one clock: the sea” belongs to the. style belles-lettres

The sentence “an explosion in the mine has resulted in the deaths of 20people” belongs to the. style newspaper

The sentence “I’m writing in connection with your account” is typical of business letter

The colloquial (informal) structures are: Alice remembers who she saw yesterday.

The following phrase: “Then, with an enormous, shattering rumble, sludge-puff, sludge-puff, the train came into the station.” is an example of:Onomatopoeia

State the type of the following graphical expressive means:

Piglet, sitting in the running Kanga’s pocket, substituting the kidnapped Roo, thinks: this shall take “If is I never to flying really it.” (M.)Spacing of lines

How can we also call a stylistic device (S ?a trope

Substitution of the existing names approved by long usage and fixed in dictionaries by new, occasional, individual ones is . transference

What is a metaphor?transference of names based on the associated likeness between two objects

What is a personification?likeness between inanimate and animate objects

In “the face of London”, or “the pain of the ocean” we deal with . Personification

Such words as the “pancake”, or “ball”, or “volcano” for the “sun”; “silver dust”, “sequins” for “stars”; “vault”, “blanket”, “veil” for the “sky” are the examples of:Metaphor

Metaphor can be expressed by:all notional parts of speech

A group of metaphors, each supplying another feature of the described phenomenon, creates . A sustained (prolonged) metaphor

What lexical SD is based on contiguity (nearness) of objects or phenomena?Metonymy

Which lexical SD is based on the relations between a part and the whole?Synecdoche

The conversational cliche “Will you have another cup?” is a case of. Metonymy

In the following abstract “She wanted to have a lot of children, and she was glad that things were that way, that the Church approved. Then the little girl died. Nancy broke with Rome the day her baby died. It was a secret break, but no Catholic breaks with Rome casually.” We can find the examples of:Metonymy

The following phrase “”Some remarkable pictures in this room, gentlemen. A Holbein, two Van Dycks and if I am not mistaken, a Velasquez. I am interested in pictures.”” is an example of:Metonymy

The following phrase “You have nobody to blame but yourself. The saddest words of tongue or pen.” is an example of:Metonymy

The following phrase “He made his way through the perfume and conversation” is an example of:Metonymy

The following phrase “His mind was alert and people asked him to dinner not for old times’ sake, but because he was worth his salt.” is an example of:Metonymy

Which lexical SD is also referred as paronomasia?Pun

What is pun?the simultaneous realization of two meanings

The following phrase “”There comes a period in every man’s life, but she is just a semicolon in his.”” is an example of:Pun

The following phrase “He took his hat and his leave” is an example of:Zeugma

The following phrase “She went home, in a flood of tears and a sedan chair” is an example of:Zeugma

Combination of polysemantic verbs with nouns of most varying semantic groups, which are not connected semantically, is called:Zeugma

When the number of homogeneous members, semantically disconnected, but attached to the same verb, increases, we deal with. Semantically false chains

The following case “A Governess wanted. Must possess knowledge of Romanian, Russian, Italian, Spanish, German, Music and Mining Engineering.” from S. Leacock may serve an example of:Semantically false chains

Zeugma restores the literal original meaning of the word, which also occurs in . Violation of phraseological units

The following phrase “Little Jon was born with a silver spoon in his mouth which was rather curly and large” is an example of:Violation of phraseological units

Which stylistic device rests on the extension of syntactical valency and results in joining two semantically disconnected clauses into one sentence?Nonsense of non-sequence

The following phrase “Emperor Nero played the fiddle, so they burnt Rome.” is an example of:Nonsense of non-sequence

Be Prepared To Lose Your Job In The Future… If You Don’t Learn This One Skill Now

Jeff Bezos, Warren Buffett, and Elon Musk all take this one approach.

One question Jeff Bezos is often asked is one we all need to ask ourselves, “What’s going to change in the next 10 years?”

It’s a profound question because the world is changing so rapidly, and because the decisions we make now will determine our destiny.

Decide wrong, and you might find yourself on a sinking ship, watching as your whole industry goes bankrupt and the skills you spent years honing become obsolete. Millions of people from journalists to financial analysts now find themselves in this position.

Decide right, and you could be set for life. The top artificial intelligence programmers, for example, make as much as NFL superstars. These programmers have suddenly found that the skill set they spent years honing has become incredibly valuable.

These two groups, top AI programmers and people whose skills have become devalued, might have spent the same amount of time learning and be equally smart. But selecting different fields took them down completely different paths.

Over the last few years, I’ve come across a group of people who have spent their whole careers expertly predicting the future, investing based off of their predictions, and then massively profiting decade after decade. What I’ve noticed is that they share a common and completely counterintuitive approach toward investing their money and time that bucks conventional wisdom. In this article, I’ll share how you can copy the approaches of self-made billionaire entrepreneurs and investors like Jeff Bezos, Ray Dalio, Howard Marks, and Warren Buffett so that you too can ‘win’ your future.

“What’s Going to Change?” Is The Wrong Question

Like I said above, Jeff Bezos is often asked, “What’s going to change in the next 10 years?” That’s actually not the key question though. Listen to how he reframes it (emphasis mine):

That is a very interesting question; it’s a very common one. I almost never get the question: ‘What’s NOT going to change in the next 10 years?’

And I submit to you that that second question is actually the more important of the two — because you can build a business strategy around the things that are stable in time.

He then goes on to explain how Amazon has profited from focusing on the second question (emphasis mine):

[I]n our retail business, we know that customers want low prices, and I know that’s going to be true 10 years from now. They want fast delivery; they want vast selection. It’s impossible to imagine a future 10 years from now where a customer comes up and says, ‘Jeff, I love Amazon; I just wish the prices were a little higher,’ [or] ‘I love Amazon; I just wish you’d deliver a little more slowly.’ Impossible.

And so the effort we put into those things, spinning those things up, we know the energy we put into it today will still be paying off dividends for our customers 10 years from now. When you have something that you know is true, even over the long term, you can afford to put a lot of energy into it.

I remember the thoughts running through my head the first time I read this quote. It felt intuitive and counterintuitive at the same time. On the one hand, I thought to myself, “This makes so much sense! Why not just focus on what’s guaranteed to be valuable rather than speculating?” On the other hand, Bezos’ response flies in the face of conventional wisdom and was jarring. The typical approach to planning for the future resembles betting at the roulette wheel:

  • Identify what you think is going to be really important (i.e., artificial intelligence, virtual reality, blockchain, synthetic biology, nanotechnology).
  • Pick one of those areas to invest in and master.
  • Hope it hits big and that you have the right timing so that you can profit.

While the conventional approach does sometimes work, it’s not a dependable strategy. It’s not what I’d tell my kids to do. A 2020 study from the Kauffman Foundation shows that “The [venture capital] industry hasn’t returned the cash invested since 1997.” And if you take out a few companies like Uber, Amazon, Google, and Facebook, the returns are abysmal. In other words, the odds of you investing in, starting, or being an early employee at a billion-dollar company are like the odds of winning a lottery. Just 200 out of all the startups out there are valued at $1 billion or more right now! You have a tenfold better chance of being hit by lightning.

Why doesn’t focusing on trends work as well as you might think?

Why Future Prediction Doesn’t Work

“You can’t predict, you can prepare.” — Howard Marks

Self-made billionaire, entrepreneur, and investor Howard Marks runs the investment firm Oaktree Capital and has $100 billion under management, making it one of the largest hedge funds in the world. Each year, Marks writes a widely-circulated letter to shareholders. One of these memos gives a masterclass in how investing in future trends isn’t always smart:

  1. The seemingly sure bets will have the most competition, which will make them less profitable. Marks writes: “Most great investments begin in discomfort. The things most people feel good about — investments where the underlying premise is widely accepted, the recent performance has been positive and the outlook is rosy — are unlikely to be available at bargain prices. Rather, bargains are usually found among things that are controversial, that people are pessimistic about, and that have been performing badly of late.”
  2. Luck and randomness are big, unavoidable factors. ”It’s far from certain that even ‘right’ decisions will be successful, since every decision requires assumptions about what the future will look like, and even reasonable assumptions can be thwarted by the world’s randomness,” says Marks. There are certain random events that are so influential that they completely change the game for everyone. Nassim Taleb calls these events “Black Swans.” (A great example is the 2008 financial crisis.)
  3. It’s much harder than you think to be consistently right. “It’s hard to consistently make decisions that correctly factor in all of the relevant facts and considerations (i.e., it’s hard to be right),” Marks notes with humility, a key trait of many of the world’s top-performing investors. Self-made billionaire Ray Dalio, the founder of the largest hedge fund in the world, drives home how hard investing is in the first sentence of his new book: “Before I begin telling you what I think, I want to establish that I’m a ‘dumb shit’ who doesn’t know much relative to what I need to know.”
  4. Even if you get the prediction right, you are likely to get the timing wrong. Marks says: “Even well-founded decisions that eventually turn out to be right are unlikely to do so promptly. This is because not only are future events uncertain, their timing is particularly variable.” And the problem with this is that having the wrong timing is functionally equivalent to making the wrong decision.

The field of artificial intelligence is a case in point for Marks’ argument. While artificial intelligence sounds like a sure bet now, it wasn’t always that way. From 1974–1980 and 1987–1993, the field went through “AI winters.” In these periods, AI reeled from being overhyped and lost credibility and funding. Talented young programmers left in droves. Many of the most successful people in the field now are those who survived these winters and kept going even when it didn’t seem smart to do so. Now, someone entering the AI field has to compete against droves of the smartest people in the world.

My point is that picking which fields will be hot in 20 years is not as simple as it sounds. Predicting third-, fourth-, and fifth-order consequences is almost impossible. Who would’ve predicted in the early 1900s that the invention of the automobile would ultimately lead to the creation of suburban sprawl, the hotel industry (because of the Interstate highway system), and the insurance industry.

Notice how Warren Buffett, the best investor in history, doesn’t invest in the hottest tech startups of the day. Instead, he has made his career by identifying businesses whose rock-solid fundamentals don’t change, or which change very slowly. As a result, Buffett is able to invest in companies for the long-term. He’s held stock in companies like Geico, Coca-Cola, and American Express for decades.

So if predicting the future isn’t the answer, what can you do instead?

Introducing The Trunk Technique

“Predicting rain doesn’t count. Building arks does.” — Warren Buffett

At the heart of the methods used by Buffett, Dalio, Marks, Taleb, and Bezos is a common theme: focus on areas that are virtually guaranteed to be valuable in the future no matter what happens.

Bezos talks about how focusing on stable customer preferences is a powerful foundation to build a company around. I’d take that a step further: focusing on stable knowledge is a powerful approach to build a life around. I call this skill the Trunk Technique…

Some forms of knowledge arise quickly and then just as quickly become obsolete. Other forms stay relevant for a very long time. In my article, Why Being Great Is So Much Harder Than People Realize, I share how the rate at which information goes obsolete is increasing:

One academic study, for example, found that the decay rate in the accuracy of clinical knowledge about cirrhosis and hepatitis was 45 years. In other words, if you’re talking to a 70-year-old liver specialist who hasn’t updated his skills, you have a 50 percent chance of getting bad information. Engineering degrees went from a half life of 35 years in 1930 to about 10 years in 1960.

So what’s the difference between knowledge that expires relatively quickly versus knowledge with staying power?

Broadly speaking, “transitional” or quickly-expiring knowledge is the kind that helps us navigate a specific environment (such as the specialized field of liver medicine). Whereas “pillar” or longer-lasting knowledge is based on fundamental principles and mental models that can be applied in many contexts including unforeseen future ones.

Let me explain. As I share in How Elon Musk Learns Faster and Better Than Everyone Else, when most people think about knowledge, they think about it horizontally, viewing knowledge across different subjects. The problem with this is that when you look at things in one dimension, you miss important connections:

What many miss is that knowledge is vertical as well. Great thinkers and doers, I have noticed, view reality this way. There are deeper principles and mental models that connect the various subjects that we study:

In the example above, by learning the universal mental models of network science that apply to all networks, you can more easily understand specific patterns in how the brain functions and how social networks work.

And it’s not just one layer deep. There are many layers. In one of Elon Musk’s Reddit AMAs he explains it like this:

It is important to view knowledge as sort of a semantic tree — make sure you understand the fundamental principles, i.e. the trunk and big branches, before you get into the leaves/details or there is nothing for them to hang onto.

Here’s one way of visualizing Musk’s semantic tree:

People who use the Trunk Technique focus on mastering the fundamental mental models or first principles first and then move on to the leaves second. By doing this, they build a more stable and adaptable tree, and therefore career. Trees lose their leaves every winter, but they thrive for decades (and sometimes hundreds of years) because they have strong trunks and roots.

Let’s take the topic of experimentation as an example. Understanding the 10,000-experiment rule is crucial for success at an individual, company, and societal level. The Leave Approach to getting better at experimentation would be to first focus on hacks like understanding how to A/B test a button on your website. The Trunk Technique would be to understand what the scientific method is first (i.e., controlled experimentation; peer-reviewed refereed journals; blind, randomized design; falsifiability; controlled placebo; double blind experimentation; computer simulations; and meta-analysis). By understanding the few core principles that make up the scientific method, one can then create thousands of experiments across every area of life and career forever. As new hacks and software tools arise, you’d be able to quickly understand their significance and use them. Then, when those specific tools become obsolete, you’d still have your trunk to grow new branches and leaves from. I attribute a large part of any success I’ve had as a writer to applying the scientific method to the creation of ideas.

Another example: I’m obsessed with health, so I’ve learned hacks for getting micronutrients, intermittent fasting, cold showers, saunas, and interval training. These are fine, but even more fundamental to my health has been learning the underlying principle of post-traumatic growth. All of the hacks above can be derived by understanding that systems grow by being stressed and then being given time to recover.

I share more details on how they specifically apply the Trunk Technique to your life in How Elon Musk Learns Faster And Better Than Everyone Else, How One Life Hack From A Self-Made Billionaire Leads To Exceptional Success, and How To Tell If Someone Is Truly Smart Or Just Average, which have collectively been read over 1 million times.

In summary, the Trunk Technique allows you to:

  • Build a knowledge tree that lasts forever. Winston Churchill once said: “The farther back you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see.” More recently, this phenomenon has been called the Lindy Effect: “The future life expectancy of some non-perishable things like a technology or an idea is proportional to their current age, so that every additional period of survival implies a longer remaining life expectancy.” The corollary of this for the information age is: “The more you focus on fundamental knowledge, the longer your knowledge tree will last.”
  • Adapt to any future fast and thrive. The nature of fundamental mental models is that they appear across all fields. Therefore, when you go into an emerging field, you’ll enter with a head start, because you’ll immediately see how the principles you already know are relevant.
  • Better understand what’s happening and what it means.Similar to how an expert chess player can see several moves ahead, mental models will allow you to put what’s happening in context so you can react appropriately and think farther ahead.
  • Reduce the risk of investing in an area that turns out to not be a winner. In this article, I’m not suggesting that you ignore the future completely. What I’m saying is that you balance your understanding of trends with what is never going to change: timeless principles and mental models. In his book, Antifragile, Nassim Taleb, a very successful investor rumored to be worth hundreds of millions of dollars, suggests an approach to investing resources that maximizes returns while eliminating losses . He calls it the Barbell Strategy: the idea of building a portfolio of extremes (extremely safe assets + high risk-reward assets) rather than building a big mix with everything in the middle.

The Trunk Technique functions in the same way as Taleb’s Barbell Strategy. By building a strong base of risk-free knowledge, we cap our downside while also giving ourselves more flexibility and confidence to make speculative bets on the future that might hit it big. That’s why I argue that learning how to apply the Trunk Technique is one of the main skills that anyone should learn in order to create the future they want.

Want To Apply The Trunk Technique To Your Life Today?

Are you convinced of the power of Mental Models? I’ve learned from personal experience that it literally takes years to develop true mastery of these. Therefore, I created two resources for you:

Resource #1: Free Mental Model Course (For Newbies)

If you’re just learning about mental models for the first time, my free email course will help you get started. My team and I have spent dozens of hours creating it. It includes the top mental models from many of the world’s top leaders, a guide on how to create a checklist based on the best practices from medicine and aviation so that you use your mental models throughout the day, and a guide that more deeply explains what a mental model is and how to get value from one.

Resource #2: Mental Model Of The Month Club (For Those Who Want Mastery)

If you’re already are convinced of the power of mental models and want to deliberately set about mastering them, then this resource is for you. It’s the program I wish I’d had when I was just getting started with mental models.

Here’s how it works:

  • Every month, you’ll master one new mental model.
  • We’ll focus on the most powerful and universal models first.
  • We’ll provide you with a condensed and simple Mastery Manual (think: Cliff’s Notes) to help you deeply understand the model and integrate it into your life.

Each master manual includes:

  • A 101 Overview of the mental model (why it’s important, how it works, its vocabulary, etc.)
  • An Advanced Overview that includes a more nuanced explanation.
  • Examples of hacks you can use immediately to apply that mental model to every area of your life and career. These hacks are based on my personal experience and are crowdsourced as well.
  • Exercises & templates that you can use on a daily basis to integrate the lessons in the manual and achieve maximum results in your life.
  • A Facebook community where you can meet other mental model collectors and learn from one another.

SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips

These 2 Recommendation Letters Got Me Into Harvard and the Ivy League

When I applied to college, I was accepted into every school I applied to, including Harvard, Princeton, Stanford, MIT, the Ivy League, UC Berkeley, UCLA, and more. While I had a strong overall application, the two teacher letters of recommendation were critical in getting me admitted.

Why? Both teachers said I was one of the top students they had ever taught. Both enthusiastically advocated for my personality, leadership skills, and energy.

How can you earn recommendation letters that will get you into your top choice colleges? I’ll show you how in this article.

For the first time, I’m sharing my full, unedited letters of recommendation as examples for you. These are the exact letters submitted when I applied to college. Even better, you’ll see exactly what my Harvard admissions officer underlined—what really stood out as important and noteworthy.

First Things First

Quick question—how confident are you in knowing what colleges are looking for in your recommendation letters?

Do you have a strong understanding of what an effective letter consists of, and what a bad letter looks like?

Many students have the totally wrong idea of what colleges are looking for in recommendation letters. This, naturally, leads to subpar letters for students.

Before I show you my letters, I first want to explain why recommendation letters from teachers are such an important part of your college application, and then what makes effective letters so effective.

If you’re champing at the bit and really want to jump directly to my letters, here’s Recommendation Letter Example #1, and here’s Recommendation Letter Example #2.

But I highly recommend that you stick with me for the next two sections—you’ll get a lot more out of this guide and get much stronger rec letters as a result.

Why Teacher Recommendation Letters Are So Important for College

The goal of your overall college application is to communicate who you are as a person, in an easily digestible package that can take 20 minutes to understand (or less). From this package, colleges will decide whether they want you to join their community or not.

Yeah, it doesn’t feel great to have your 18 years of existence compressed into a web form. But that’s the best system colleges have come up with so far to deal with the tens of thousands of college applications they receive every year. (Or in the case of UCLA, 135,000+ applications.)

  • how likely you are to succeed in college and in your career
  • how much you’ll benefit the school community as a student and beyond

These are the ultimate goals of colleges when selecting their next class of students. Your application must convince the college that you will succeed in both goals.

Of course, these are complex ideas—success is not only hard to predict, but different people also have different ideas of what success means.

But there are a few general principles that hold true for most colleges:

    previous academic success is a great predictor of future academic success, which in turn predicts career success.

certain personality traits are preferred: integrity, leadership, curiosity, creativity, empathy, perseverance, motivation, ambition, collaboration, confidence, and others. You don’t need to be perfect in all dimensions, but some of these should apply strongly to you.

  • you also generally want to avoid the opposite of these traits. These are all bad adjectives: unethical, narrow-minded, unmotivated, self-centered, arrogant, rude.

For the first admissions requirement of academic success, your coursework and test scores play the biggest role. If you took a rigorous courseload and got a high GPA, and you got a high SAT/ACT score, you have shown that you can handle high school academics. This means you’re in a great position to succeed academically in college.

Feel like your SAT/ACT scores aren’t high enough to impress your top choice colleges? We’ve written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your SAT/ACT score. Download it for free now:

How do you show the second requirement—personality traits? Part of this is in your personal essays and extracurriculars, where you’ll show what you’re interested in and give voice to your personality.

But of course you’ll describe yourself as curious, creative, collaborative, kind, and so forth. Who would describe themselves as unethical and mean?

This is why colleges need objective, third-party observers to comment on who you are. This is where your teacher recommendations come in, and why they’re so important.

The role of the rec letter is to show who you are as a person. Your teachers have engaged with you throughout at least a year of class. They’ve seen you in class with other students, and possibly out of class too. There are hundreds of small interactions that piece together to form your teacher’s impression of you.

How do you interact with students? How do you interact with teachers? How creative was your work? How much did you participate in class discussions? How motivated were you to excel in school?

Are you a jerk nobody wants to be around? Or are you someone the teacher entrusts with the future?

A great teacher recommendation tells the college all of the above.

Let’s Hear From Harvard’s Dean of Admissions

What if you don’t fully believe me yet? I’m just one guy with his own admissions experiences.

So I’m going to call on William Fitzsimmons, Dean of Admissions at Harvard College:

Recommendations from secondary school teachers and counselors are extremely important at Harvard and at many other colleges, particularly those with selective admissions processes. Faced with more academically qualified applicants than places in the freshman class, our admission officers review the two required teacher recommendations and the counselor report with great care, often commenting on them in writing on “reader sheets” in each application.

We often project the recommendations themselves onto large screens so that all members of the Admissions Committee can see them during the subcommittee and full committee review processes in February and March.

Recommendations can help us to see well beyond test scores and grades and other credentials and can illuminate such personal qualities as character and leadership as well as intellectual curiosity, creativity, and love of learning. Along with essays, interviews, and other materials in the application, recommendations can offer evidence of an applicant’s potential to make a significant difference to a college community and beyond.

Notice how he says Harvard is “faced with more academically qualified applicants than places.”

What does this imply? “Among a pool of students with the same academic qualifications, we use personality traits to decide who to admit or reject.” And letters of recommendation for students describe those personality traits.

To beat a dead horse: your teacher recommendations add more color to your academic achievements, your test scores, and your GPA.

The best recommendation letters for colleges rave about your personality and personal qualities.

This is why my two letters below are so effective.

You do not want your recommendation letters to just be repeats of your resume. This gives the admissions officer zero extra information about who you are a person.

You do not want your recommendation letters to just say, “Johnny got an A and turned in his homework on time.” This makes it very obvious that the teacher has no idea who you are as a person, which means it adds zero to your application.

Great recommendations talk about more than your class performance. They discuss your personal qualities, how interacting with you feels like, and why you’re likely to succeed in the future.

First, I’m going to show my letters to you, with analysis of why they were so effective. You’ll see the highlights made by my Harvard admissions officer, which will tell you what things she found important.

Then I’ll give you advice on how to build relationships with your teachers so you can get letters like this on your own.

My Letter of Recommendation Samples

Usually you don’t get to read letters of recommendation for students because you sign the FERPA waiver, waiving away your rights to read your application. But I was able to retrieve my full Common App and Harvard application from Harvard, complete with my original letters of recommendation.

Most colleges require you to have two letters from teachers in different subjects. The two teachers I asked for letters were my favorite two teachers in all of high school.

Personally, I vibed most strongly with teachers who actually cared about teaching. They gave engaged students with energy, treated us kindly and empathetically, and went above expectations to help students succeed. Not only did I have the most fun with these teachers, but they were also more likely to advocate for me enthusiastically in their letter.

You might not vibe with teachers for the same reasons, but it’s important you choose teachers you get along with and who you feel will write you very strong letters.

My first letter comes from my AP Chemistry teacher from 10th grade. My second comes from my AP English Language teacher from 11th grade.

As you read these letters, remember—these letters didn’t come instantly. They take hundreds of small interactions over a year or more to build an impression of who you are. You can’t trick a teacher into writing a great recommendation letter for you.

If you honestly like learning and are an enthusiastic, responsible, engaging student, a great recommendation letter will follow naturally. The horse should lead the cart.

Teacher Letter #1: AP Chemistry Teacher

I took AP Chemistry in 10 th grade and had Miss Cherryl Vorak (now Mynster). She was one of our younger teachers, having taught for just a few years before I had her.

She was my favorite teacher throughout high school for these reasons:

  • She clearly took pride in her work. She was very caring, spent a lot of time helping struggling students, and seemed to consider teaching her craft.
  • She was universally well liked by her students, even if they weren’t doing so well. This is pretty rare. She was fair in her policies and grading, and she was kind. This was the kind of teacher where if you weren’t doing well, you felt like it was your fault, not the teacher’s.
  • I participated in the US National Chemistry Olympiad (this was the major academic honor I earned) and she was my advocate and a great resource for this. She provided me a lot of training materials and helped me figure out college chemistry.

By the time I applied to college in senior year, I had known her for two full years and engaged with her continuously, even when I wasn’t taking a class with her in junior year. We’d build up a strong relationship over the course of hundreds of small interactions.

All of this flowed down to the recommendation you see here. The horse leads the cart.

First, we’ll look at the teacher evaluation page. The Common Application now has 16 qualities to rate, rather than the 10 here. But they’re largely the same.

If the images are hard to read, keep scrolling down—I provide the recommendation in text form.

How long have you known this student and in what context?

I’ve known Allen as a student inside the classroom and outside the classroom in extracurricular academic activities since he was in the 10th grade.

What are the first words that come to your mind to describe this student?

Intelligent, motivated critical thinker; Charasmatic, well rounded, talented individual; Independent, mature, responsible student.

List the courses you have taught this student, noting for each the student’s year in school (10th, 11th, 12th) and the level of course difficulty (AP, accelerated, honors, IB, elective, etc.)

As a 10th grader, Allen was one of the top students in my AP Chemistry class.

Please write whatever you think is important about this student, including a description of academic and personal characteristics. We are particularly interested in the candidate’s intellectual promise, motivation, maturity, integrity, independence, originality, initiative, leadership potential, capacity for growth, special talents, enthusiasm, concern for others, respect accorded by faculty, and reaction to setbacks. We welcome information that will help us to differentiate this student from others.

See enclosed letter.


Compared to other college-bound students in his or her secondary school class, how do you rate this student in terms of:

Below Average Average Good (above average) Very Good (well above average) Excellent (top 10%) Outstanding (top 5%) One of the top few encountered in my career
Creative, original thought
Independence, initiative
Intellectual ability
Academic achievement
Written expression of ideas
Effective class discussion
Disciplined work habits
Potential for growth

This was the Common Application from 2004-05, over 10 years ago. In today’s Common Application, all of these ratings are retained, aside from “Potential for Growth.” Today’s Common App also now includes Faculty Respect, Maturity, Leadership, Integrity, Reaction to Setbacks, Concern for Others, and TE Overall. You can tell that Common App teacher evaluations place a strong emphasis on personality.

From Miss Vorak, you can see a very strong evaluation. First she says she’s known me for over two years and has had interactions inside and outside the classroom. Then she’s very enthusiastic with her “first words” answer, listing off a lot of strong personal traits. Finally, she gives me the highest ratings possible for all qualities.

The Ratings section is really important. In one go, you’re compared to all the students your teacher has ever taught. The better your ratings here, the more competitive you are relative to your classmates.

What makes for good enough ratings for you? That depends on your personal college goals and your school’s competitiveness. The more competitive the colleges are, the higher up your ratings need to be.

If you’re applying to your state school, where the admissions rate is >30%, and your high school is pretty competitive, simply being Very Good or Excellent can be a strong rating for you.

On the other hand, if you’re applying to the most selective colleges like Harvard, Stanford, or the other Ivy League schools, it is important to be ranked “One of the top few encountered in my career” for as many ratings as possible. If you’re part of a big school, this is critical to distinguish yourself from other students. The more experienced and trustworthy the teacher, the more meaningful this is. You really want to make sure you’re one of the best in your school class, if not one of the best the teacher has ever encountered.

Next, let’s look at her letter.

As you read this, think—what are the interactions that would prompt the teacher to write a recommendation like this? This was a relationship built up in a period of over 2 years, with every small interaction adding to an overall larger impression.

Again, if the images are too small to read, I’ll have the exact text below, so scroll down.

And here’s the letter in text form. I’ve bolded the sections that were underlined by my Harvard admissions officer:

To Whom It May Concern:

It is with very great pleasure that I write this recommendation for Allen Cheng to support his application for admission into Harvard. Allen has a deep passion for science and has been one of the few exceptionally gifted students that I have encountered in my career as an Advanced Placement Chemistry teacher. Among his many achievements and accomplishments, Allen’s performance on a battery of Chemistry Olympiad exams taken by approximately 11,000 students nationwide recently secured him the position as the second alternate for the U.S. Chemistry Olympiad team, ranking 6th in the country for a team which represented our nation in the International Chemistry Olympiad competition in Germany this past spring. As a senior, Allen hopes to surpass his performance once more in hopes of securing a solid position as one of the four members on the 2005 U.S. Chemistry Olympiad team this coming spring.

I first encountered Allen when he was a sophomore in my AP Chemistry class. He was the youngest student in the class of upper classmen, but he was the top excelling student among the two sections of AP Chemistry classes that I taught during the 2002-2003 academic year. As a sophomore, he worked very well with others, mastered laboratory techniques, earned the top score on the AP Chemistry Exam, and was one of the top performers on the National Chemistry Olympiad Exam that year.

As one of the top performers on the National Chemistry Olympiad Exam in 2003, Allen was one of twenty students in the nation who qualified to be a participant in the United States National Chemistry Olympiad National Team in the spring that year. He spent an extensive amount of time studying independently in order to ensure that he would cover all of the topics that our class did not yet study and often sought additional instruction during lunch and after school during which he asked questions and performed labs from previous Chemistry Olympiad competitions for practice. When results were published, Allen was ecstatic to have qualified as one of the twenty participants in the U.S. Chemistry Olympiad Study Camp and he enjoyed the experience training for the International Chemistry Olympiad during which he was exposed to Organic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, etc., branches of science typically encountered at the college level.

As a member of my Advanced Placement Chemistry class, I have found Allen to be an intelligent, conscientious, motivated and responsible student who masters theory-and applies it well. He academically excelled among his peers, often explained concepts to confused classmates, actively participated during discussion, asked questions to ensure that he had a firm understanding of concepts, and sought additional sources for supplementary problem solving exercises. As a scientist, he was always meticulous when performing experiments, he led his lab group to successfully complete experiments, he wrote great detailed analytical lab reports, and he worked well with others. Allen is a self motivated, dedicated, hardworking student of high intelligence who can grasp difficult concepts, think critically and handle the rigor of a competitive college environment. He exhibits the qualities of a leader and promising scientist who truly loves science.

Allen truly impresses me as a student who actively seeks new experiences which support his love for science. This past summer, Allen was a participant at the Research Science Institute at MIT where he conducted research in the field of neuroscience. In addition, Allen has been conducting research with the Jisan Research Institute under the guidance of a professor for two years and has recently coauthored a paper which was published and presented in the LASTED International Conference on Robotics and Applications in Hawaii this year. In addition to conducting research, Allen has also been volunteering at Methodist Hospital and in an immunology lab at the City of Hope National Medical Center where he has been able to strengthen his general laboratory skills. He is clearly an independent, active member of society who pursues personal interests.

Beyond his academic excellence, Allen is a charismatic individual who is respected and liked by faculty and peers. Throughout his high school career, Allen often stopped by my room during lunch to take my AP Chemistry tests to review his general chemistry, but he also often stopped by during lunch or after school to chat about his latest developments, events in school, or other various topics. His maturity and charisma are qualities that are quite rare among high school students. He interacts well with his peers be it in the classroom setting or with the broader diverse student population where he is well known as a balanced individual with a warm personality and sense of humor. He balances his time well by excelling in a heavy course load filled with advanced placement classes and he also participates in various school and community activities, including our school’s academic teams which provide a structured yet fun forum for competition and learning. Allen is a well rounded individual who clearly enjoys a challenge.

Overall, Allen exhibits the qualities of a leader as well as a great scientist who has had ample research experience and excels academically in challenging, college level courses. He is an intelligent, well-rounded, and grounded individual who challenges himself and actively seeks new opportunities and experiences. He has the determination, maturity, and intelligence to succeed in any endeavor and always maintains a positive attitude. His academic and personal achievements show that he is committed to his education and will work hard to achieve his goals. He exudes confidence and has a vivid, outgoing, and friendly personality that allows him to get along with others very well in any setting. I admire him for his intelligence, sincerity, honesty, and integrity and am impressed by his discipline as an independent learner. He is a highly motivated individual with a thirst for knowledge. Allen Cheng would truly be a superior addition to the student body at Harvard.

AP Chemistry, Chemistry Honors Teacher

The letter here is very strong for a multitude of reasons. First, the length is notable—most letters are just a page long, but this is nearly two full pages, single spaced. This is pretty rare, since teachers often have to write dozens of letters a year. It’s clear she’s interacted with me a lot, cares a lot about supporting me, and is willing to put in the work to do so.

The structure is effective: first Miss Vorak talks about my academic accomplishments, then about my personal qualities and interactions, then a summary to the future. This is a perfect blend of what effective letters contain. She highlights my most important extracurricular activities and awards (you can read more about it here in my Complete college application).

At the detail level, her diction and phrasing are specific and supportive. She makes my standing clear with precise statements: “youngest student…top excelling student among the two sections” and “one of twenty students in the nation.” She’s clear about describing the effort I put in, like studying college-level chemistry and studying independently.

When describing my personality, she’s exuberant and fleshes out a range of dimensions: “conscientious, motivated and responsible,” “exhibits the qualities of a leader,” “actively seeks new experiences,” “charismatic,” “balanced individual with a warm personality and sense of humor.” You can see how she’s really checking off all the qualities colleges care about and corroborating her ratings.

Overall, Miss Vorak’s letter perfectly supports my application—my love for science, my overall academic performance, and my personality. The last part is especially important—she adds much more color beyond my A in AP Chemistry. This letter was important to complement the overall academic performance and achievements shown on the rest of my application.

Let’s go to my second Common App teacher recommendation.

Curious about what my college application looked like, including personal essays, grades, test scores, and extracurriculars?

You’re in luck—I’ve published my ENTIRE college application here. This includes my complete Common Application, teacher recommendations, counselor recommendation, and Harvard supplement.

This application got me into every school I applied to, including Harvard, Stanford, Princeton, and more.

Teacher Letter #2: AP English Language Teacher

My second teacher Mrs. Swift was another favorite. A middle-aged, experienced English teacher, I would describe her as “fiery,” in a good way. She was passionate, always trying to get a rise out of students in class discussions. She was challenging as a teacher and grader, and I always wanted to impress her. Emotionally she was a reliable source of support for students.

First, the teacher evaluation from the Common App:

How long have you known this student and in what context?

2 years, AP student.

What are the first words that come to your mind to describe this student?

List the courses you have taught this student, noting for each the student’s year in school (10th, 11th, 12th) and the level of course difficulty (AP, accelerated, honors, IB, elective, etc.)

11th Grade AP English

Please write whatever you think is important about this student, including a description of academic and personal characteristics. We are particularly interested in the candidate’s intellectual promise, motivation, maturity, integrity, independence, originality, initiative, leadership potential, capacity for growth, special talents, enthusiasm, concern for others, respect accorded by faculty, and reaction to setbacks. We welcome information that will help us to differentiate this student from others.


Compared to other college-bound students in his or her secondary school class, how do you rate this student in terms of:

Below Average Average Good (above average) Very Good (well above average) Excellent (top 10%) Outstanding (top 5%) One of the top few encountered in my career
Creative, original thought
Independence, initiative
Intellectual ability
Academic achievement
Written expression of ideas
Effective class discussion
Disciplined work habits
Potential for growth

You can see right away that her remarks are terser. She didn’t even fill out the section about “first words that come to mind to describe this student.”

You might chalk this up to my not being as standout of a student in her mind, or her just getting tired of recommendation letter requests every year.

In ratings, I earned three of the “one of the top in my career” for “Motivation,” “Independence, initiative,” and “Intellectual ability.” The rest are marked as Outstanding (top 5%).

These are overall great ratings, but not as universally “top ever” compared to my AP Chemistry teacher.

There are a few explanations for this. As a teacher’s career lengthens, it gets increasingly hard to earn this mark. Since Mrs. Swift was a lot older than Miss Vorak, she had run through a ton of students already, which makes it harder to be one of the top few ever encountered.

I probably also didn’t stand out as much as I did to my Chemistry teacher—most of my achievement was in science (which she wasn’t closely connected to), and I had talented classmates. Regardless, I did appreciate the 3 marks she gave me.

Now, the letter. Once again, as you read this letter, think: what are the hundreds of interactions, in the classroom and outside, that would have led to a letter like this?

To Whom It May Concern:

It is with great pleasure that I recommend Allen Cheng for admission to your school. In my three years of working with him, he has demonstrated the qualities necessary for high success in the demanding academic atmosphere of a high caliber university as well as the social skills needed to be successful in college.

Academically, he is an extremely strong student, earning an A both semesters in AP Junior English (a feat few accomplish), and A’s throughout his high school career. He consistently exhibits dedication and vigor in all that he approaches. He is a member of the National Honor Society, the California Scholarship Federation, and an integral part of the Jisan Research Institute. He is a vital member of all that he is a part of.

Outside of the classroom, Allen’s passion is for research. He has a brilliant and lightning quick mind; he is a fantastic scientist, one with great charisma and leadership skills. Though he is a year younger than the rest of his class, he is heads and shoulders above them. He has been more than ready for all that a major university has to offer for quite some time.

Perhaps one of Allen’s most outstanding characteristics is his independence of thought and his willingness to express those thoughts. In other situations where students-would never speak their minds, he showed no hesitation to voice questions, thoughts, and ideas. He was always an active participant in class discussions, his animated character and controversial positions often being the spark that set off the entire class to an impassioned and heated period of arguing, often with him at the focal point of one side or another.

His other qualities are of equal magnitude – his leadership skills came to forefront in group projects where he took charge, assuming the majority of the work and responsibility, ensuring that everything was completed in a timely manner and to his extremely high standards. He also has the ability to take the quiet and shy student and actively engage him or her, transforming that student into an active member of the class. I went out of my way to partner him with other students who needed this kind of attention and encouragement.

Another quality that sets him apart from other student leaders is his strength of conviction. He will argue on any topic that has touched a nerve. He breathes with raw, unbridled passion. It is a rare gift in a person of any age; in someone just 16, it is breathtaking. He is honest, never stooping to cheat; he is entertaining, relying on wit, knowledge, and intelligence to persuade. Friends rely on him; he is attentive to their true needs. Teachers enjoy him in their classes.

I recommend Allen completely, with no hesitation. He will make his mark and be known.

Overall, this letter is very strong. It’s only one page long, but she spends a lot more time on my personal qualities. She writes with her characteristic flair:

“In other situations where students would never speak their minds, he showed no hesitation to voice questions, thoughts, and ideas.”

“controversial positions often being the spark that set off the entire class”

“ability to take the quiet and shy student and actively engage”…”went out of my way to partner him with other students who needed”

“strength of conviction”…”raw, unbridled passion”…”He will argue on any topic that has touched a nerve.”

These comments support my personality strongly. I lean more towards an irreverent, straightforward personality, not being afraid to speak my mind. While this came across in my personal essays and application, an experienced teacher vouching for this adds so much more weight than just my writing it about myself.

Again, this impression was built up over a year of her teaching me. It wasn’t just one time I stopped by after class. It was continuous participation in class discussions, strong performance throughout the year, and likely observations of me when I didn’t know she was even looking.

With my two letters in mind, let’s end with advice for how you can get the best college rec letters possible.

How You Can Get the Best Recommendation Letters from Your Teachers

By now, I’ve repeated my most important advice for you a few times. The important thing is that the advice sticks in, and that you actually practice it.

The best recommendation letters for students gush about your personal qualities and why that makes you the promising beacon of the future.

You can’t trick a teacher into writing a strong letter for you. This is the wrong attitude to have, and most teachers will be able to sniff out insincerity. Don’t think that you can just stop by after class three times and get the teacher to be your buddy.

Instead, your teacher’s impression of you is built up over hundreds of interactions—in class discussions, in group projects, in your homework, during presentations, when arguing about test scores, and even when you think she’s not listening.

If you honestly like learning and are an enthusiastic, responsible, engaging student, a great recommendation letter will follow naturally. The horse should lead the cart.

    Starting sophomore year, identify 2-3 teachers each year you get along with. Have at least one in math/sciences, and another in the other subjects. You won’t get letters from all of them, but you do want backups in case your top choice writers don’t work out.

Prepare well for class discussions, and don’t be afraid of sounding dumb. Speak your mind and your teacher will remember it. As a teaching assistant in college and grad school, I can tell you firsthand how annoying it is to ask the class a question and have no one respond. Prep beforehand and show that you’re one of the few students who actually cares about learning.

In your interactions with teachers, focus on improving yourself and learning, not on getting a better grade. This applies to talking about grading, group projects, and learning what’s on a test. Students who grovel for extra points on a test are really annoying. In contrast, students who try to figure out where their weaknesses are and how to improve for the future are really fun to work with.

  • Try to make the teacher’s life easier. If you can help the teacher save time, she’ll love you for it. This might mean helping out classmates who are struggling, sharing notes with the class, or noticing problems she’s having and trying to fix them.
  • This will take sustained effort and energy, but it’s the most reliable way to get very strong recommendation letters. Even more, you’ll likely have a lot more fun in school, and you’ll build a strong relationship with an adult mentor who can teach you a lot.

    For a lot more detailed advice like this on how to interact with teachers earnestly, check out my How to Get a 4.0 GPA and Better Grades guide.

    Keep Reading to Build Your College Application

    Do you like my advice in this guide? Great—I’ve written a lot more to help you build the strongest college app possible.

    Do you feel like your SAT/ACT score is lower than what your top colleges are looking for? As someone who got a perfect score on the SAT and ACT, I learned important strategies to notice your weaknesses and drill to improve them. Read these guides to boost your SAT/ACT scores.

    Also, check out my series on getting perfect scores in each of the sections on the SAT/ACT:

    Aiming for a top school like Harvard, Stanford, Yale, or Ivy League-level schools? Your impression of what they’re looking for might be completely wrong.

    In this guide, you’ll learn:

    • why colleges exist, and what that means for what students they’re looking for
    • why being well-rounded is the path to rejection
    • what an application Spike is, and why it’ll get you into every college you apply to
    • how to develop a Spike of your own

    If you’re aiming for top tier colleges, this is a must read for you.

    Do you feel like you’re struggling to balance a rigorous course load with good grades? You’re not alone—this is a challenge for many high school students nationwide.

    In this guide, I’ll tell you everything I know about how to get good grades. This includes mindset and psychology; study habits you need to have; and individual subject strategies. Even if you’re not aiming for a 4.0 GPA, this is well worth the read—you’ll learn something that can save you hundreds of hours of study time.

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