Electronic Payments (E-Wallets) – Resource

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Contents

Electronic payment systems in Russia

The Electronic Payment System (EPS) is the technology (if to speak about implementation, then service) representing set of methods, arrangements and subtechnologies, allowing to make calculations between partners for data networks. In most cases the last are meant as the Internet.

Content

The electronic payment instrument – the means allowing the client of the operator to make, certify and transfer on money transfer orders for the purpose of implementation of money transfer using special technologies and information media. The electronic payment instrument is not personified if concerning the client identification was not carried out, i.e. the operator did not set the information about the client.

Types of payment systems

As of February, 2020 in Russia the following classification of the electronic payment systems (EPS) is accepted.

Remote financial services

  • Mobile banking
  • SMS banking
  • Mobile operator payments
  • NFC payments

2. Bank not mobile services (Internet banking)

Internet payments

In online payment systems making payment is performed via the Internet. On payment types online payment systems separate on:

  • Card payment systems – payment is made by bank cards (MIR, Visa, MasterCard, American Express, etc.) on the Internet on the website of the seller of goods or service (UCS, etc.).
  • Operators of digital cash – payment is made on the Internet by so-called digital cash or electronic money – a certain internal currency which can be cashed at the corresponding participants of EPS (WebMoney, Yandex.Money, etc.).
  • Payment gateways – represent synergy of card systems and operators of digital cash, giving ample opportunities for mutual converting and payment methods of goods and services on the Internet. It should be noted that a considerable part of the existing EPS belongs to gateways in spite of the fact that many of them select a certain payment type as dominating (ChronoPay, Assist, etc.).

Terminals

  • Bank terminals
  • Non-bank terminals or Payment terminals (system of instant payments)

Acquiring

The Central Bank is the regulator of the market of payment systems

Since July, 2020 the duty to exercise supervision of payment systems is officially assigned to the Bank of Russia. By estimates of the first deputy chairman of the Bank of Russia Vladislav Kontorovich, by the end of 2020 by new rules in Russia about 50-70 payment systems can be registered.

Volume and structure of the market

BCG told about “the Russian miracle” in the field of card payments

From 2020 to 2020 the number of non-cash card transactions in Russia grew by 30 times. At the same time Russia became the world leader in number of the protected tokenized transactions.

Up to 2028 total revenue in the European market of card payments will grow approximately for 5.9% a year, the international consulting company The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) predicts. At the same time the East European market, it agrees to the forecast of the company which came to RBC, will grow much quicker than Western European — 7.4% against 5% a year. The main engine of the East European market BCG calls Russia.

“Russia feeds the most part of this expansion. The combination of cheap retail financing, high concentration of the market and large investments into technologies promoted creation of “the Russian miracle”, said in the report of BCG.

According to it, in 2020 the volume of payments grew in Russia on average for 22.1%, in 2020-2028 growth will be reduced to 11.8%, however and after that Russia will advance all other countries considered in a research (only 58).

The managing director and the partner of BCG and the head of expert practice of Digital in Russia and the CIS Max Hauzer explained that in 2020 in Russia the “phenomenal” growth of number of non-cash card transactions was observed. For these years it grew almost by 30 times — from 5.8 to 172 in a year on the person.

“On this indicator Russia overtook all countries of Europe, including leaders who for the same period showed two – and triple growth. The reasons of such success are that actions of each of participants of process of transition to non-cash transactions worked for each other as catalysts, feeding and strengthening rapid development” — Hauzer emphasized.

BCG note that thanks to “the Russian miracle” Russia became the market, largest in Europe, on the volume of transactions with use of digital purses and the world leader in number of the protected tokenized transactions.

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Mediascope: Electronic payments of Russians

The Mediascope company studied as well as what residents of Russia in 2020 paid online for. It turned out that in general the share of users who periodically pay through the Internet almost did not change. At the same time the number of those who are calculated online for the taxi, hotel booking and purchase of tickets for transport, and users who send money transfers grew up and pay for online games, there was a little less. Most often for payment people use bank cards, Sberbank Online and Yandex.Money.

What pay for: to a thicket for the taxi and is more rare for games

The most part of users already has experience of online payment of mobile communication (85.8%), purchases in online stores (81%) and housing and communal services (74%). These categories are among several years the most popular. In a year the share of online payers in them did not change.

Most dynamically the share of users who pay online for the taxi grows. In a year it grew almost by 12% — from 45.4% in 2020 up to 50.8% in 2020. It is interesting that for the taxi young people — about 64% of respondents aged from 18 up to 24 years and nearly 63% in group from 25 to 34 years were calculated more often. Among audience from 35 to 44 years paid online of 50% of respondents, and in group from 45 to 55 years — only 39%. Also the number of people who on the Internet armor hotels grew up and buy tickets for transport — approximately for 3% in each category.

Only in two categories the share of users who pay through the Internet decreased – it is money transfers (from 57.2% to 55%) and online games (from 28.5% to 25.3%).

What users of different age pay on the Internet in

Bank cards remain the most popular means for payments on the Internet. In a year 90.5% of Russians used them. Paid 89.7% through Internet banking, in electronic money — 77.6%.

The most active payment audience online — users from 25 to 34 years. Paid in electronic money 82.2% of respondents of this age group, through Internet banking — 93.9%. The biggest share of users of bank cards in more senior group — from 35 to 44 years (94.4%).

Sberbank Online remained the leader among payment online services traditionally. With its help at least once in a year paid 83.2% of Russians. Yandex.Money was the second most popular service — through them every second user of Runet (52.8%) was calculated. Top three included also PayPal (46.1%). On the fourth and fifth places there were e-wallets of WebMoney and QIWI (39.9% and 36.9% respectively). About a quarter of respondents paid online through Internet bankings of VTB, Alfa-Bank and Tinkoff of Bank.

Through VK Pay service which entered the market after other e-wallets 15.4% of users were calculated. Generally this method is selected by young audience: the biggest share of users of service — from 18 to 24 years. Other services of electronic money have most of all users in group from 25 to 34 years. Nevertheless even at audience of 18-24 years the most popular payment services are Sberbank Online (83.2%), Yandex.Money (45%), QIWI (40.6%).

Contactless payments: growth continues

Contactless payments are the most popular with audience from 25 to 34 years (57.3%). On average used them for a year of 44.8% of Russians, the previous year — 38.3%.

Among the contactless systems Google Pay which number of users in a year grew from 19.6% to 22.9% is in the lead. Through the Apple Pay paid 18.9% of respondents, through Samsung Pay — 15.5%. At Garmin Pay the audience is much less — about 2% of respondents were calculated with its help. However among users of 18-24 years of the Apple Pay won first place (29%). Most of all users of Google Pay in group from 25 to 34 years. Samsung Pay traditionally closes top three. The Korean service was more popular with people from 35 to 44 years, than the Apple Pay, but it could not overtake Google Pay.

Growth of purchases online according to cards more than three times for the first half of the year

On August 15, 2020 Bank Russian Standard reported that studied statistical data about dynamics of growth of the online transactions made on to cards all banks in the internet-acquiring network. So, according to bank, growth of turnover in Internet acquiring was 255% (in comparison with the same period of 2020), and the total quantity of online transactions increased by 283%. In more detail here.

2020: Data of Platron

Analysts of service of electronic payments Platron collected statistics for 2020 on online to payment by bank cards, electronic money and other methods. During the research data on 8.5 million transactions made on three thousand websites connected to service of electronic payments Platron were used.

The bank card – the most demanded payment method both in 2020, and in 2020. But despite a considerable gain of transactions, an average bill of 2020 decreased by 30% in comparison with 2020 and made 5400 rubles. Such trend is observed in all payment methods: lowering of the average check averages 20 – 30% depending on a payment method.

If to tell about use of bonus cards for payment online, then their share did not change and recorded on a mark 29%. It does not mean that there is a decrease in issue of bonus cards, and only confirms that global changes in this segment do not happen. Though the amount of the average check, as well as in other categories, it was lower, than in 2020, despite the same growth of number of transactions. In 2020 the amount of the average check was slightly more than 11,000 rubles, at the end of 2020 – 8300.

Obtaining such data is explained by an unstable economic situation and with respect thereto, change of consumer capability of Russians of any social status.

High growth in 2020 was shown by the sphere of online crediting. In comparison with 2020 demand for the credits online grew by 20%. And this credit product is successfully used not only by banks, but also electronic payment systems, online stores, microfinance institutions and many others.

In spite of the fact that credit institutions tried to start programs of issue of loans on specific purchases in Networks several years ago, the few shops supported them – the most part of buyers preferred to see at first goods, to feel, try on, and then only to pay cash. Since then a lot of things changed: the solvency of the population fell, payment by installments became more attractive, electronic payments entered broader use. According to analysts of Platron, the average bill of purchases using service of online crediting by 6 times or is 80% (!) higher than the average check of payment by the bank card and is record 34,000 rubles. Experts do not doubt that the form of online crediting will enjoy popularity at Russians, and it is an undoubted trend for the next years.

Payment in electronic money is still popular, and even is on rise: the average bill grew by 20%. It is connected with increase in rates for these or those services for which users prefer to pay with this method. In 2020 the amount by the average check was 1500 rubles, and payment took place for: cellular communication, Internet access, housing and communal services, online games, penalties and taxes.

Analysts note that growth of popularity of online banking will become one of trends of 2020. Since 2020 the number of the buyers preferring this method increased from 2% up to 5%, and the average bill grew by 20% and was 3000 rubles. The choice of this payment method is explained by the fact that for the user it looks safer, than input of personal data on the websites of unfamiliar online stores. Interest in a method grows, but about the competition to payment by bank cards which turnover according to service of electronic payments Platron online made 82% in 2020, to speak early.

The numerous online stores offering payment only by cards and electronic money should pay attention to growth of number of the users who selected payment terminals which are most demanded in regions. Also mobile payments grow, but you should not forget that payment through the SMS is used generally at the low amount of the check which according to Platron does not exceed 250 rubles.

As of January 01, 2020 in Russia 575 commercial banks work. For the beginning of 2020 the number of the operating banks in the Russian Federation made 681. Thus, for 2020 the banking system of the Russian Federation decreased by 106 banks.

According to a research of Platron company, the most popular cards for purchases online are Sberbank, Alfa-Bank and VTB 24. In 2020 according to these cards more than 69% of transactions were carried out.

In 2020 the 4 and 5 position on purchases was taken online by Raiffeisenbank and Tinkoff Bank. In 2020 they traded places. According to the experts it is connected with the active advertizing campaign waged by Tinkoff Bank across all Russia.

Changes concerned and “Svyaznoy Bank (till 2020 Promtorgbank)” which entered into top ten by the number of transactions and turnover, but in connection with work suspension, in 2020 its place was taken by Rosbank in spite of the fact that the number of transactions by his clients was made 10% less, than in 2020.

Forecast of uBank

According to forecasts of uBank, in 2020 the volume of the Russian market of electronic payments can be 3000 – 3500 billion rubles significant growth of a share of non-bank services which borrow 1/3 from the total amount of the market now Will be observed, and in 2020 their share can reach 40%.

Data of RAEX (RAEX)

In July, 2020 RAEX Rating agency published results of the research of functionality of the systems of Internet banking for individuals. The total volume of Internet payments of natural persons for 2020 grew less than by 1% and was 1.7 trillion rubles while from 2020 to 2020 average rates of a gain were 44%.

The general decrease by 9% of volumes of transactions of individuals in 2020 is the reason of weak dynamics – it is reaction of clients of banks to the shocks connected with devaluation of national currency and decrease in a real income. The number of Internet payments of individuals for 2020 dropped by 5%, up to 88 million units. Reduction of number of transactions was promoted partly by structural change of the market: at the end of 2020 the share of number of the payments made on the Internet fell from 40 to 35%. The number of the payments made by clients by means of SMS messages grew more than three times, and their share in a total quantity of transactions of natural persons in a year increased from 2 to 5%. Clients of banks began a thicket to use SMS banking instead of classical Internet banking for transfers and payment of services to the small amounts. The reason – active work of banks and cellular operators on carrying out a number of the transactions performed through SMS messages.

By estimates of RAEX, in 2020 the volume of online payments will show a modest gain at the level of 6–9% due to work of banks on automation of a part of client transactions and growth of a share of active users.

MARC: 588 billion rub, the leader – “Yandex.Cash”

According to the research center MARC for the end of 2020, RBK Money used 3% of the Russian websites accepting online payments for goods and services. In total such websites of 88 thousand. The most popular payment solution — “Yandex.Cash” which for the end of 2020 was used by 24% of the websites. Follow Robokassa (20%), Interkassa (5%) and Unitpay (4%). The size of the market of online payments, according to the Russian association of electronic associations, was 588 billion rubles in 2020.

PriceFree: falling of-55%

By estimates of analysis department of the payment and discount PriceFree system, the size of the market of electronic payments in Russia in 2020 was reduced approximately by 50-55% in comparison with similar indicators the previous year. Specialists consider that the volume of electronic payments in dollar expression reached in 12 months of last year the level of $33-35 billion against $70 billion [1] the previous year [2] .

“There is a number of the competing factors which together made the contribution to the general negative trend, or, on the contrary, smoothed falling — the PR-director of PriceFree Max Ognev noted. — Certainly, the main moment was considerable devaluation of the Russian currency which blocked all other factors on the importance here”.

The beginning of slipping of the Russian economy in economic recession and a considerable capital outflow which took place on all segments of the market and played a significant role here became the following negative point, according to him.

“In the middle of the year both geopolitical risks, and currency turbulence, and decrease in solvency of the client became in total a certain shock for all segment: from spring until practically end of fall we observed the actual suspension in investment projects. In this plan the situation begins to quicken just now when startups become more and more attractive” — Max Ognev considers.

According to him, it is worth selecting certain segments which acted as “leaders” of falling. “Money transfers, for example, are actively integrated into electronic payments. Because of devaluation of the Russian currency considerably sank as sector volume, and the client portfolio decreased. Working migrants began to leave the country, seeing hopelessness of earnings in Russian ruble. Considerable shrinkage of the sector of money transfers by a ricochet struck all segment of electronic payments” — the representative of PriceFree told.

Among the smoothing falling factors in the company called inertia of speed which was gained by growth of the market of electronic payments till 2020. It practically grew multiply, as well as capitalization of the players working at this segment grew.

According to PriceFree, all segments of the market of electronic payments were seriously corrected in dollar expression: practically by 3 times the segment of e-wallets (up to $1.3 fell – $1.7 billion), approximately by 2.5 times onlay-shopping fell. Not only devaluation of ruble, but also significant shrinkage of all tourist industry from which orders were substantially paid online (purchase of tickets, hotel booking) became the reason of it, explained in the company. In this segment at its considerable turnovers in 2020, according to the estimates of PriceFree, there was a falling to $13 billion to $5 billion in the left year.

“In a segment of prepaid cards, for example, we saw change, congruent to jump of dollar exchange rate” — the expert specified. And, nevertheless, Ognev noted a positive view of the future of all market, having added that, though there will be hard year 2020, but will bring “significant increase in attractiveness in new and new investments at the expense of low cost of the economy”.

“In respect of investments into the market of electronic payments Russia remains one of leaders in the world — Max Ognev believes. — It belongs to all sector: to e-wallets, prepaid cards, etc. We consider that in 2020 growth rates of investment attractiveness will increase. This good field for those who look for new channels for investments actively monitors new projects in the field of electronic payments and commerce”.

J’son & Partners Consulting

The J’son & Partners Consulting company provided in the summer of 2020 results of the updated research of the Russian market of electronic money at the end of 2020, its turnover at the end of 2020 made 590 billion rubles.

By estimates of the company, turnover of payments through electronic payment systems annually increases, at the same time the annual average growth rate for the last three years was 53%.

According to the research, market development is caused by a set of factors, including: development of services — increase in number available to payment of services and goods at different suppliers, quality improvement of show-windows, additional opportunities for input and output of means and use of virtual bank cards; increase in penetration of the payment integrators allowing to pay goods and services, for example, using electronic money directly on the party of the supplier; constantly growing trust of the population to the means of cashless payment influencing penetration of services.

According to J’son & Partners Consulting, in 2020 turnover of payments of users through electronic payment systems made 0.6 trillion rubles that for 34% exceeds last year’s result. According to forecasts of the company, rapid growth of the market will remain in the next 5 years that will allow its volume to exceed 1.1 trillion rubles by the end of 2020.

2020: J’son & Partners: growth of +27%

According to J’son & Partners, turnover of the market of EPS in Russia in 2020 made 2.4 trillion rubles, having shown growth by 27% in comparison 2020. Turnover of payments through electronic payment systems in a year increased by 43% and made 0.44 trillion rubles or 18% of turnover of the market of EPS. Also, by estimates of J’son & Partners Consulting, the number of transactions in a segment of electronic money in a year increased by 22% and was 0.55 billion.

Significant growth of the market is connected as with expansion of opportunities of use of electronic money (improvement of functionality of mobile versions, expansion of the list of the services available for payment, etc.), and with a possibility of solutions of most of players to recharge directly from bank cards and release of virtual cards.

On May 16, 2020 become effective the amendments to laws No. 115-FZ and No. 161-FZ introducing a number of restrictions in activity of operators of electronic money in Russia.

According to Marina Martynova, the director of Intervale Kazahstan LLP, turnover of the market of the Electronic Payment Systems (EPS) in Russia in 2020 made more than $65 billion. At the same time turnover of the remote financial services which are a part of the market of EPS in 2020 exceeded $35 billion and will make 49% (the others 51% – payment terminals) from expected turnover of the market of EPS. In 2020 the share of turnover of remote financial services in EPS will make 70%. At the same time the lion share of growth is necessary on mobile remote financial services which provide both banks, and non-bank organizations (the system of electronic money).

2020: Restko Holding: growth of +24%

According to the research conducted by specialists of Restko Holding company for 2020 turnover of the market grew from 1,460 billion rubles to 1,811 billion rubles, i.e., for 24%.

A quarter of Internet users of Russia ever paid off in network, nearly 30% of audience of online payments – inhabitants of the Moscow region. A half of transactions is made using the bank card, and an average payment amount over the country – 2800 rubles. The sales director of the international processing center of PayU Kozyakov Pyotr at the ECOM Expo exhibition’ told 2020 about it.

In the report “Facts and digits: online payments as the engine of e-commerce of Russia” Pyotr Kozyakov provided results of joint survey of the international processing center of PayU and the Data Insight agency. According to it, online payments in Russia become more and more popular: 17 million Russians aged from 18 up to 65 years ever paid goods and services in network. The full age Internet audience in Russia reaches 68 million people, from them 25% are users of online payments. At least once in a month pay 12 million people on the Internet.

As specialists of PayU and Data Insight found out, most of users of online payments are young people up to 35 years (61%). Men pay off in network more often than women – 56% and 44% respectively. In the first case the peak of activity is necessary approximately for 30 years, in the second it comes up to 25 years.

The income of those users that actively pay off in network, is 15-50 thousand rubles a month. The it is higher, the more likely the person performs online payments. This dependence is especially strongly shown in both capitals. Nearly a third – 29% of users of online payments lives in the Moscow region, 9% are the share of St. Petersburg with area. The largest not capital region by the number of users of online payments – the Volga region (16%). If to consider data by localities, then with the population more than 300 thousand people live in the cities 58% of users of online payments, and 28% are the share of two capitals. Even in rural areas there are those who pay on the Internet, their more than 2 million people.

“Every year the number of the Russians preferring non-cash payments in network grows the increasing digits. For example, in 2020 it increased by 3.9 million people, and in 2020 – already by 4.3 million. The audience of online payments grows significantly quicker, than Internet audience in general, – the sales director of PayU Pyotr Kozyakov comments. – Nevertheless, growth reserve in the industry of online payments still huge is an and not covered Internet audience in both capitals and also practically all territory of Russia where the broadband Internet did not manage to get yet. With arrival of high speeds and high-quality connection to regions it is possible to expect next “boom” of online payments”.

According to results of a research, active users of online payments it is possible to call 7 million Russians. The representative of this category is calculated in network two times a week. Mid frequency of online payments – 3.8 payments a month, the average amount of online payment – 2,800 rubles. At the same time a half of transactions do not exceed 600 rubles, and 18% make the amounts less than 200 rubles. Only 15% of transactions are the share of big payments (5000 rubles and more), but they provide 73% of all volume of online payments. 63% of users pay off with the bank card, 30-35% use electronic money or Internet banking, and 27% pay online from the account of the mobile phone. Bank cards are in the lead not only on number of users, but also by the number of transactions – with their help 52% of online payments are made.

The most popular category of payments is a cellular communication and other communication services, they are followed by housing and public utilities, taxes and penalties, tickets and tourist services, goods in online stores. The biggest payments – in an online-travel segment, the smallest – in a segment of paid online services, and services of cellular communication are in the second place since the end. Only 7% of a total quantity of online payments, but 40% of volume are the share of payment of tickets and tourist services.

By estimates of J’son & Partners Consulting (February, 2020), turnover of the market of EPS in Russia in 2020 made 1,811 billion rubles, having shown growth by 24% in comparison with a similar indicator of 2020.

Turnover of the remote financial services which are a part of the market of EPS in 2020 will exceed 890 billion rubles and will make 49% of expected turnover of the market of EPS. It is expected that in 2020 the share of turnover of remote financial services in EPS will make 70%.

By estimates of J’son & Partners Consulting, in 2020 turnover of the market of remote financial services made 896 billion rubles, having increased by 48% in comparison with a similar indicator of 2020. By the end of 2020 the market will exceed 2.6 trillion rubles, at the same time the annual average growth rate (CAGR) from 2020 to 2020 will be 24%.

In structure of turnover of the market of remote financial services from 2008 to 2020 there were significant changes. So, the share of non-bank services (electronic money) from 12% grew to 31% due to reduction of a share of bank services. According to forecasts of J’son & Partners Consulting, by 2020 the share of non-bank services will decrease by 5% for benefit of bank and mobile services.

Fraud with bank cards

Security of electronic payments

Ministry of Internal Affairs: The number of frauds using electronic payment instruments grew more than by 400%

As it became known on November 13, 2020, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation published statistics of frauds using electronic payment instruments.

According to statistics of department, in 9 months 2020 in Russia 10.3 thousand frauds using the electronic payment instruments qualified according to Article 159.3 by UK were registered. It is 417.3% more, than during the same period of 2020.

In total from January to September, 2020 the Ministry of Internal Affairs recorded more than 205 thousand crimes which were committed using information telecommunication technologies. It is 69% more than last year’s indicators. [3]

Ministry of Internal Affairs: the number of criminal cases about fraud with electronic payments increased by 8 times

As it appears from statistics of the Main information and analytical center Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, in the first half of 2020 the number of the registered cases of fraud using electronic payment instruments (Article 159.3 of UK) reached 6613. Honor it in 8 times more in comparison with the same period of 2020.

In the first half of 2020 in production there were 157,297 criminal cases under articles about fraud (Article 159 of UK). From them 105,681 case are registered in the I half-year (growth by 5.4% in comparison with last year). Other affairs belong to previous periods.

The number of the cases brought to trial decreased by 5.8% (22,195). The number of the cases suspended because of problems with establishment of the defendant increased by 6.3% (65,221).

In the first half of the year 2020 the number of the registered crimes under the Article 159.2 of UK significantly increased (fraud when receiving payments). In total 4441 such case are registered that is 27.6% more, than last year.

The resident of Chelyabinsk is sentenced to 10 months for cracking of payment systems

On June 20, 2020 it became known that the court sentenced the resident of Chelyabinsk to 10 months of restriction of freedom for cracking of personal accounts in payment systems. The sentence was pronounced by the Central district court of Chelyabinsk. Read more here.

Losses from fraud with online payments were $22 billion

Analysts of Juniper Research estimated losses from fraud with online payments at $48 billion at the end of 2020. To the 2023rd these losses will double and will reach $48 billion. It is said in the report of research company from which excerpts were published on November 20, 2020. Read more here.

In the Russian Federation there will be own services for data protection and payment systems

On December 25, 2020 it became known that in the Russian Federation there will be own services for data protection and payment systems. Till 2024 for information security it is going to select over 30 billion rubles.

Special attention will be paid to information security in Russia. In particular, measures for creation of domestic services will be taken for personal information protection and payment systems. About it on December 25, 2020, the prime minister of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev reported during the meeting of the government commission on digital development.

According to the prime minister, the fourth project within the Digital Economy program is devoted to information security. According to the project, till 2024 for cybersecurity it is going to select over 30 billion rubles, from them 18 billion rubles will be selected from the federal budget.

Here the major role is played by the Russian software, will take measures that at us the services were born which can guarantee personal data protection, protection of payment systems.

The prime minister emphasized importance and relevance of a question of information security. Medvedev noted that for December, 2020 cyber crime and cyber wars are serious threat therefore it is necessary to take all measures for protection of both normal citizens, and government institutions, business and critical infrastructure. [4]

2020: Security requirements of payments on the Internet

The Bank of Russia suggested to expand in September, 2020 the requirements list to data protection at money transfer on the Internet. The corresponding draft of amendments in provision of the Central Bank is placed on the portal of disclosure of drafts of regulatory legal acts.

In particular, requirements need to be raised for operators on money transfers which should ensure safety of performing transactions on the Internet.

“The operator on the basis of the statement of the client … determines restrictions on parameters of transactions which can be performed by the client using the system of Internet banking”, the document says. by money transfer.

Operators need to increase security using certain technology measures which provide identification of the client, authentication of his electronic messages at money transfer and an opportunity to control details.

Also amendments regulate a possibility of the operator to confirm the client’s right to carrying out transaction or to set restrictions, among which: a maximum amount of transfer, the list of possible receivers of money, operation time, the geographic location of devices using which clients perform operations.

Operators should announce in the Central Bank cases of identification of incidents and also “the planned actions for disclosure of information on incidents”.

Besides, amendments set need and an obligation of operators to annually test systems for penetration of threats of information security.

No. 382-P “About requirements to ensuring data protection at implementation of money transfers and about a procedure the Bank of Russia of control of observance of requirements to ensuring data protection at implementation of money transfers” [5] is offered to make changes to provision of the Bank of Russia of June 9, 2020.

2020: 16 recommendations about security online of payments from the Central Bank

On August 5, 2020 the letter of the Bank of Russia No. 146-T containing a number of recommendations to credit institutions on increase in safety of providing retail payment services in the Internet was published.

The market the Internet of payments along with the e-commerce market existed in “parallel reality” of rather Russian financial market, the Central Bank and changes of the Russian legislation several years ago. However the annual growth of the e-commerce market more than on the Internet and to use of bank cards in general changed a situation to a quarter and the increasing interest of Russians in cashless payments.

In Letter No. 146-T a number of points describes fixed functions of a system of fraud-monitoring of the organization which is engaged in security of payments. It is recommended to update mechanisms of a system of fraud-monitoring at least, than every two years, and at emergence of new risk factors and entering of cardinal changes into a system data protection – timely and quickly to adapt for them an analysis system of risks.

For increasing the level of security of payments on the Internet and reduction of risk of emergence of fraudulent transactions it is recommended to use multifactor authentication of the payer. As authors of the Letter explain, possession of a subject or the device (for example, the personal identifier), knowledge of a certain information (for example, the password), possession of the defined permanent integral properties (for example, fingerprints)” belong to authentication factors “.

In the same purposes it is recommended to use dynamic client authentication – authentication at which at one of stages the password with limited validity period and restriction for number of uses is used. Recommendations about confirmation of payment transactions using the one-time passwords delivered to the client on an alternative communication channel correspond to a format of work of XML-protocol 3-D Secure (3D-Secure) and practice of international payment systems: Verified by Visa, MasterCard SecureCode and J/Secure. Also attention is paid to importance of use of mechanisms of monitoring of payments, including for the purpose of risk analysis. As criteria of monitoring the frequency, the amount, the place of commission and the receiver of payment are specified.

All recommendations about security of providing retail payments should be considered as at transfer of function of the operator on money transfer to outsourcing, and by drawing up agreements with the subagents providing the electronic payment instruments allowing to receive retail payment services via the Internet.

And, of course, considerable attention in the Letter is paid to measures of increase in literacy of individuals – payers. Operators on transfer of retail means are recommended to inform clients on possible suspension of receiving services, on unsuccessful attempts of gaining access to them, on an ability to manage limits on making payments via the Internet. These recommendations are submitted on increase in the trust level of the population to non-cash forms of money and motivation to their active use. One of instruments of promoting of non-cash cash transactions among the population is a possibility of risks insurance of the payer.

Thus, Letter No. 146-T is a collection of basic recommendations about increased security when providing the retail payment services via the Internet submitted as on development of risk management systems and data protection on the party of operators on money transfer, and on increase in literacy and knowledge of users of retail payment services on the Internet.

History

2020: Banks began to transfer to FTS data on e-wallets of Russians

Since April 1, 2020 in the Tax Code of Russia became effective requirements which oblige banks to report to the Federal Tax Service (FTS) data on opening and closing with Russians of e-wallets, such as Yandex.Money, “Qiwi the Purse”, WebMoney and PayPal. Earlier it concerned only bank accounts.

New rules will be applied to the personified e-wallets both with complete, and with simplified identification. At simplified identification it is enough to client to provide passport details, the Insurance Number of Individual Ledger Account or a TIN. However possibilities of such purses are, as a rule, limited. At complete identification it is necessary to provide an expanded document package. FTS will obtain from banks information on e-wallets in the automatic mode.

It is supposed what at the expense of an innovation of FTS will monitor Russians who do not pay taxes on income — for example, do business without registration by the individual entrepreneur. The tax administration also wants to fight against money muling and financing of terrorism via e-wallets.

At the same time the tax administration will be able to receive information on operations with e-wallets (for example, the statement on accounts to which the e-wallet is tied) only on demand, when conducting check of the holder of a purse or its partner. Department has no direct access to these data.

According to data of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, at the end of 2020 in Russia 534.6 million e-wallets, from them 17.1 million personified were open. In a year Russians made on them 2.8 billion transactions for the total amount of 1.9 trillion rubles. More than a half from the volume of transactions was the share of the personified purses — 1.1 trillion rubles as operations on anonymous purses are limited to a limit and functionality. [6]

Joint statement of AED, WebMoney, Yandex.Money and Qiwi

According to the EY Index [7] , in 2020 Russia took the third place in the world on the level of penetration of financial technical-services, having overtaken such countries as Sweden, Great Britain, Singapore. These results correspond to ambitious goals of the Bank of Russia — to increase a share of non-cash payments to 65%. But some measures taken this year can slow down growth of a share of a clearing settlement and worsen the current situation.

Every fourth consumer of financial technical-service selects service proceeding from simplicity of an input. In this plan the simplest financial service is the e-wallet — it is possible to open it in a minute. Having specified the e-mail address and the phone number, the client will receive not personified tool with limited functions: under the law other people cannot use it for transfers, withdrawal of money and payments in the foreign organizations. But it is possible — for payment of services of the Russian companies, for example for housing and communal services, mobile operators, online stores. Simplicity of registration of a purse made it the important social tool which solved a problem with availability of financial services until recently and raised a share of cashless payments in commercial and social spheres.

E-wallets played a noticeable role and in development of the banking market — many modern solutions were for the first time tested in the market of electronic money: from fast online translations to payment mobile applications. These services are still demanded: more than 100 million people in Russia have e-wallets and more than a half of users of Runet regularly them are calculated. Growth of a share of e-wallets — a universal trend: according to forecasts of Worldpay Global Payments Report [8] , by 2022 their share will grow by 10-20 items, having reached 47% in a total amount of online payments.

Unfortunately, recently possibilities of not identified purses were cut down: the current edition of Federal law No. 161-FZ prohibits cash withdrawal even within admissible before 5000 rubles and also gradually introduces restrictions for usual methods of replenishment of not personified purses, in particular cash. Operators of electronic money and expert community repeatedly expressed bewilderment concerning the speed of acceptance and severity of these measures: not personified purses were unsuitable for p2p-transfers and an obnal earlier, and now can be useless at all, there will be no convenient opportunity left for their replenishment soon.

Effects of it will affect not only in public, but also business. Inhabitants of the remote regions whom banks leave will lose the most available financial service. The share of cash payments will grow that in turn will become temptation for unfair entrepreneurs. At the same time any online payments, even through not personified purses, are much less attractive to illegal acts, than the transaction with cash or cryptocurrency: electronic payments contain more information on the sender and the receiver and are easier traced, than cash or cryptocurrency transactions.

To lower these negative effects it is possible to expand possibilities of identification of purses, considerably having simplified identification procedures without prejudice to their quality. As measures for simplification the following is offered:

  • Identify purses by data from the organizations to which activity Federal law No. 115-FZ extends, without signing with them the agreement. For example, on cell phone number (with the subsequent verification of the owner through the cellular operator who is obliged to check data of the subscriber, making out a sim card).
  • Legalize carrying out simplified identification of Russians by the passport and the car driver license which at many is more often near at hand, than the second document required now — a TIN, the Insurance Number of Individual Ledger Account or compulsory health insurance.
  • Permit owners of e-wallets to be identified through a Single biometric system. Now only clients of banks have such opportunity for opening of the account or receiving the credit.
  • Permit to undergo simplified identification to nonresidents that they could pay beznalichno and it is transparent.

According to experts of Association of participants of the market of electronic money and money transfers and her members, these measures will lower a barrier to identification passing — therefore, will make financial services more available to the population and stimulate the further growth of transparent non-cash money turnover.

The bill providing prohibition on anonymous replenishment of e-wallets is approved

On July 30, 2020 it became known that the Federation Council approved the federal law draft “About introduction of amendments to the Federal law “On the National Payment System” providing entering into this regulatory legal act of the amendments imposing a ban on anonymous replenishment of e-wallets. As consider in expert community, these changes will negatively affect the market.

The bill is drafted by the Member of the Federation Council Nikolay Zhuravlev and group of deputies of the State Duma, including the Chairman of the State Duma Committee on financial market Anatoly Aksakov.

The bill sets requirements to acceptance in the territory of Russia of the electronic payment instruments emitted by foreign payment service providers (AliPay, WeChat, etc.). Among the requirements set by the bill to e-wallets – prohibition on replenishment of not personified e-wallets without opening of the bank account. Besides, the bill specifies such concept as “a foreign payment system” and sets requirements to functioning of these systems in the territory of Russia.

As specified in the Associations of participants of the market of electronic money and money transfers (AED), amendments providing prohibition to fill up not personified e-wallets without opening of the bank account, did not go even through basic stages of public discussion, and this fact in concerns market participants.

Restrictive provisions were entered within the second reading to the non-core bill on regulation of foreign payment systems and accepted within several days. The industry had no opportunity not only to analyze changes, but also properly to react to them. Also arguments which would prove similar restrictions and urgency of introduction were not provided, – paid attention in AED.

At the same time in Association noticed that the prohibition assumed by the bill significantly will limit the choice of consumers and will reduce incentives to use of non-cash tools.

Usual methods of replenishment of purses which owners were not identified or simplified identification, via the terminal or at office of the cellular operator will become impossible”, – specified in Association, having noted that in electronic payment systems more than 2 billion transactions for the amount more than 1.7 trillion rubles are annually made. It is still demanded payment service, the user base of e-wallets in Russia, as well as around the world, continues to grow. Negative effects of the adopted amendments will be felt by more than 10 million consumers. Changes will also negatively affect strategic objectives of the Bank of Russia on improvement of competition, availability of financial services, non-cash turnover, – said in AED.

At the same time in Association noted that the functionality of not personified e-wallets is already significantly limited in recent years.

They cannot be used for payments abroad, transfers to other individuals. From not identified purse it is impossible to withdraw money in a cash form. All key risks are already minimized and restriction for replenishments of these tools will not have any positive impact. Introduction of similar bans in Belarus in 2020 showed negative influence on financial availability and the innovation potential, did not lead National bank of Belarus to the solution of any practical tasks, and for July, 2020 is going to permit until the end of the year again use of not identified e-wallets, – informed in AED.

The Association also paid attention that National risk assessment of financing of terrorism provides that Russia for the purpose of risk minimization of attraction of financial resources will provide a possibility of blocking of payment instruments in the Internet and will prohibit cash disbursement from nepersonitsifirovanny electronic payment instruments.

Both of these tasks are carried already out that significantly reduced the corresponding risks. Prohibition on replenishment of not personified electronic payment instruments without opening of the bank account is not mentioned in national risk assessment, – noted in AED.

Summarizing, the Association said:

We are convinced that the accepted innovations negatively will affect the purposes on increase in availability of financial services, will reduce the competition in the market. In recent years the regulator and the industry created debugged mechanisms for discussion of changes in regulation, including problems and ways of development of identification of payment instruments were in detail and comprehensively discussed. Unfortunately, the reasons of such significant change of the legislation bypassing these mechanisms and, especially, need of such urgent solution remained unclear for participants of this process [9] .

Control over operators of foreign payment systems

On March 12, 2020 it became known that the State Duma in the first reading accepted a packet of the bills including setting requirements to acceptance in the territory of the Russian Federation of electronic payment instruments and to functioning of foreign payment systems.

The first bill offers to specify a concept of “a foreign payment system” and also to define the concepts “foreign payment service provider” and “operator of services of information exchange”. Also the document offers to set requirements to acceptance in the territory of the Russian Federation of electronic payment instruments and to prohibit foreign payment service providers to render services in money transfer to resident clients and on providing electronic payment instruments to them.

Also the bill supposes to set requirements to functioning of foreign payment systems in the territory of the Russian Federation, including to provide presence in the territory of Russia of the representative of operator of a foreign payment system and also to define that rules of a foreign payment system should contain requirements about data protection, risk management system, etc., having obliged the operator of a foreign payment system to follow rules of a foreign payment system, to provide public availability of these rules.

It is offered to establish that the Bank of Russia has the right to request and receive documents and other necessary information including containing personal data from the representative of operator of a foreign payment system, to direct requirements about elimination of violations of the law.

As noted in the explanatory note to the second bill from a packet, “the increasing number of banks gives to the clients an opportunity of implementation of cashless payments using payment applications, such as ApplePay, SamsungPay, MirPay”.

For the purpose of ensuring protection of the rights of clients, decrease in operational risks of banks, are defined by the bill requirements to an order of interaction of bank and supply agency of the payment application.

Also the bill provides disclosure to the Bank of Russia of information on suppliers of payment applications that will promote increase in efficiency of assessment of systems implemented by banks and procedures of risk management.

Besides, authors of the bill note, in the market of payment services acquiring business models within which payment aggregators on the basis of agreements with banks provide information processing on transactions with payment cards, e-wallets for benefit of trade and service companies gained distribution and participate in calculations for such transactions. For the purpose of development of infrastructure of acquiring and increase in its availability to the enterprises of small and medium business it is offered to regulate activity of payment aggregators as bank payment agents. Obligations of the payment aggregator for identification of trade and service companies, participation in settlement of disputable transactions, ensuring uninterrupted operation of operation of program technical means and also on observance of security requirements of information at implementation of money transfer are established by the bill.

For the purpose of expansion of availability of payment services on electronic marketplaces for subjects of small and medium business the bill provides a possibility of implementation of operations on transfer of electronic money using corporate e-wallets between legal entities and individual entrepreneurs. Information on such transactions will be obtained by the Bank of Russia [10] .

The State Duma supported withdrawal limit of cash from anonymous electronic means

The State Duma adopted in March, 2020 in the second reading the bill of improvement of control of use by citizens of not personified (anonymous) electronic payment instruments and of restriction for cash withdrawal from such means of payment. The bill was initiated by the Government of the Russian Federation.

In edition of the first reading it was forbidden cash withdrawal of money using anonymous electronic payment instruments.

To the second reading this regulation was modified — if the client underwent the procedure of simplified identification, he can remove cash using such means in case of use of the prepaid card provided that the total amount of the issued cash does not exceed 5 thousand rubles within one calendar day and 40 thousand rubles during one calendar month, TASS writes.

At the same time it is provided that balances in cash of the citizen on this electronic payment instrument according to its order can be transferred to the business bank account, the individual entrepreneur, to the bank account of this individual and also to execution of its obligations to credit institution.

The restrictions connected with establishment of limits of a remaining balance of electronic money attract prohibition for operators of electronic money to make a transfer in case of exceeding of the set limits.

2020: Foreign payment systems are obliged to bring the representative in Russia

On December 7, 2020 there was information that the bill according to which the foreign payment systems and e-wallets working with the Russian users should bring the official representative in Russia is introduced to the State Duma and submit the application for entering into the special register of the Central Bank. If they do not make it, then in 270 days after adoption of law will not be able to transfer money to Russia.

The bill was prepared by group of parliamentarians headed by the Chairman of the State Duma Committee on financial market Anatoly Aksakov. From the legal point of view the document represents amendments to the law on a national payment system.

The bill defines a concept of a foreign payment system. It is about set of the organizations which transfer money through border under foreign laws and the rules. The foreign bank which is a payer and the receiver of means during implementation of their transfer can be a part of such system.

Authors of the bill explain that the market of payment services is constantly entered by other participants, and this sphere actively develops in this connection it needs additional regulation.

According to the bill, any foreign e-wallet or a payment system if they want to work with the Russian users, should be entered in the special register of the Central Bank. Only those payment systems which fulfill certain requirements, including to risk management and data protection will be included in the register.

To be included in this register, a foreign system should submit the application. This application should be submitted through the official representative of payment system in Russia. In the bill it is stated that foreign payment operators should get without fail in Russia such representative.

The authorities legislatively defined a concept of a foreign payment system The bill sets requirements to cooperation of the owner of the foreign e-wallet or a payment system and the Russian bank through which there passes payment. From the Russian banks it is required that they worked only with those foreign operators who are entered in the register of the Central Bank. Money transfer through systems which are not in the register will become impossible in 270 days after adoption of law.

Authors of the bill believe that these measures will provide timely settlings of foreign payment systems with the Russian banks and will raise the security level of transactions.

As for cashless payments through special applications like Apple Pay, in this case the bill also provides to the Central Bank of information on suppliers of such payment applications. Besides, suppliers are forbidden to transfer money to resident clients and to provide them electronic payment instruments.

Also the bill introduces additional rules for acquiring, i.e. acceptance of payment cards for payment of goods and services. Now payment aggregators should sign the agreement with bank. Operation of payment aggregators as bank payment agents will be regulated for the purpose of increase in availability of acquiring to small and medium business, authors of the bill note.

Payment aggregators will have to carry out identification of the enterprises which accept payment by cards for goods and services. Also settlement of disputable transactions, data protection of transactions and ensuring non-failure operation of the equipment what the continuity of transfers [11] depends [12] will belong to their duties [13] .

2020: Russia will limit anonymous electronic payments

At the end of 2020 the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation reported performed by order of the government according to expediency of prohibition of transfer of funds for not the personified electronic payment instruments (PEPI) without bank account. The matter was discussed together with the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, Rosfinmonitoring, the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Economics, and officials did not manage to reach agreement so, Kommersant reports.

Confrontation arose between the Central Bank and Rosfinmonitoring. The first is confident in need of prohibition on receiving cash from e-wallets and prepaid cards, and the second insists on prohibition of anonymity and obligatory identification (at least simplified) of users. According to the secretary of state of Rosfinmonitoring Pavel Livadny, anonymous purses are used “for financing of terrorist, extremist and unlawful activity”.

Specialists of the Central Bank do not agree with opinion of colleagues from Rosfinmonitoring and consider introduction of the ban on anonymity an excessive measure. According to them, in case of introduction of obligatory identification users will just pass to cash payments that will cause social tension.

Anyway, however industry members consider too tough both offers of Rosfinmonitoring, and the Central Bank. Even the initial initiative meaning transfer of funds for NESP only through bank accounts can seriously strike at the market. The measures proposed by both regulators can destroy the market at all, experts consider.

The meeting of representatives of Rosfinmonitoring and Central Bank during which the uniform position will be developed will shortly take place. Then implementation of an initiative will begin.

2020: The National Bank of Ukraine prohibited use of the Russian payment systems

Under prohibition 4 electronic payment systems got: WebMoney, Yandex.Money, QIWI Wallet and Wallet one. The lack of approval of the NBU of provision of services became the reason of such solution. Learn more: Sanctions of Ukraine against Russia.

The Central Bank is the market regulator. Discussions about the new law

Since July, 2020 the duty to exercise supervision of payment systems, then is officially assigned to the Bank of Russia and their registration will begin. It at the interbank conference on information security of banks which took place in Bashkortostan was said in March, 2020 by the first deputy chairman of the Bank of Russia Vladislav Kontorovich. By its estimates, by the end of 2020 by new rules in Russia about 50-70 payment systems can be registered.

  • The main discussions at a conference erupted around two problems:
  • need of completion of the Federal law “On the National Payment System” for ensuring safe functioning of this system and also
  • quality improvement remote banking (RBS).

“Shortcomings of the legislation create opportunities for formation of other elements of a payment system which, without breaking the law, bear in themselves risks because do not identify clients and do not provide due control of payments”, – Garegin Tosunyan, the president of the Association of Russian Banks noted.

Not less questions are connected also with RBS improvement. According to the Association of Russian Banks, Russia takes the third place in the world on dynamics and distribution of cyber crime. For fight against this phenomenon experts suggested to review standards of security requirements to the systems of bank service taking into account increase in degree of their security.

Despite the questions designated by bankers it should be noted that the law expanded possibilities of use of electronic money and in general payment systems that should urge on investors. “It was possible not to recognize earlier electronic money. Now they are legalized, so investors can operate quietly with them”, – V. Kontorovich told.

As the foreign companies select provider of payments for work in the Russian market of e-commerce

In April, 2020 the marketing department of ASSIST company published results of a research which purpose was to set those criteria which are decisive when choosing provider of electronic payments by the foreign companies in the Russian market. ASSIST is provider of payments of more than 60% of the largest foreign brands doing business in Russia:

To abstract from the developed opinion of the foreign players long ago working at the Russian market of e-commerce, and, ASSIST which in most cases selected, the research was conducted on the foreign companies only planning entry into the Russian market and at this time selecting the technology contractor on online to payments. Representatives of 23 foreign brands were polled.

The research was conducted by method of telephone and personal interview. The generalized results can be reduced to the following main criteria on the basis of which the choice of provider of payments is made:

  • 75% reputation: this criterion includes also work term in the market, and presence of large Russian and foreign customers, and responses about the company.
  • 60% existence of own antifrodovy system capable are effective to work both with Russian, and with foreign cards: it is very important factor since an antifrodovy system should not reduce sales due to use of “tough” filters and limits, and at the same time, should conform to the international standards on safety of payments.
  • 60% readiness to implement any wishes of clients and existence of resources for this purpose: the uniqueness of technical solutions due to which there is their detuning from competitors and involvement of loyal Russian users is always important for large foreign brands. Compliance to the high level of requirements to development team often is one of decisive factors.
  • 50% the choice of bank of an ekvayer from the most reliable Russian banks: it should be noted that in addition to reliability of bank, the requirement of the foreign companies often is presence at provider of several acquiring partners.
  • 40% own electronic computing powers: this criterion, at observance of all previous, many companies was perceived as meant by default, and received the last place in rating.

2020: Law 161-FZ “On the National Payment System”

On September 29, 2020 for the industry the Federal law No. 161-FZ “On the National Payment System” of June 27, 2020 where determination of the electronic money (EM) is fixed became key, key requirements to transfer of EMF and also operators of electronic money are fixed. If earlier activity regulated a set of laws and separate articles in different laws, then the law “On the National Payment System” became the uniform regulating document for all industry of electronic payments.

  • Since 2020 for the market which was initially divided between three payment systems – Chronopay, Assist and Cyberplat – actively there are banks: Raiffeisenbank, Alfa-Bank, Transcreditbank. Release schedules of the solutions for Internet payments were also announced “by BM-Bank Russia” and Sberbank.
  • In July, 2020 twice the ChronoPay system fell a victim of DDoS. At first service was unavailable from July 5 to July 7, the second attack which managed to be beaten off fell on night from July 19 to July 20. The CEO of Chronopay Pavel Vrublevsky does not exclude that the attacks can spend those who want to perform repartition of the market of payment acceptance on the Internet. First of all, it is about banks.
  • In July, 2020 the DDoS attack which is presumably initiated by Pavel Vrublevsky (the head of ChronoPay) on Assist payment system became an incident, sign for the market. In more detail about an incident watch articles: Aeroflot, Pavel the Vrublevsky and ChronoPay.
  • Entering into the State Duma of the bill “On the National Payment System” became an important event of 2020 for market participants. The section of the document devoted to regulation of the market of electronic money prepared with participation of members of Electronic money association. As of March, 2020 the bill prepares for the second reading.

1998: The first transaction in the CyberPlat system

In March, 1998 the first transaction in the CyberPlat system was performed, and in August of the same year the first payment via the Internet for benefit of Beeline operator was made.

The high popularity of electronic payments led to uncontrollable, even chaotic, to growth of players in this market. Already in the second half of the 90th years in the world was several hundred electronic payment systems, many of which did not observe (besides indistinct) the rule of the game in this market. A large number of financial frauds, unsuccessful projects and many other things led to some stagnation of the market of electronic payments and disappearance of a great number of players from it.

Among the largest electronic payment systems in it we lie there were PayPal, Neteller, StormPay, PayAce and some other. In Russia ChronoPay, Cyberplat, WebMoney, Yandex.Money and others are noticeable.

1997: CyberPlat is the first Russian electronic payment system

Creation of the first Russian electronic payment system CyberPlat.

1996: Development of the EMV and SET standards

Development of regulations and standards of work in the market of electronic payments and also information security. Quite so uniform requirements to manufacturing techniques of smart cards (EMV) and the special protocol for implementation of electronic transactions which received the name SET were issued. It should be noted however that the last, despite all prospects, for a number of reasons was not widely adopted, but nevertheless it is used in a number of solutions.

1995: First-ever e-wallet

  • Creation of the first monocurrency microprocessor card for small purchases (the Belgian company Proton).
  • The Mondex payment system developed the first-ever e-wallet.

The first purchase on the Internet electronic money

In the USA the first purchase via the Internet using eCash technology is implemented (an operator was the DigiCash company organized by Chaum which went bankrupt afterwards for a number of reasons).

Start in Russia systems Zolotaya Korona

Emergence of the first Russian payment system “Zolotaya Korona”.

1993: Invention of electronic money

Creation by David Chaum, head of cryptographic department of CWI, electronic money. It was the eCash system which operation principle is underlain in most the electronic payment systems existing today. The idea of eCash consisted that cash was stored, in fact, on the hard drive of the personal computer, and management of it and performing transactions required the special software and connection to the Internet.

What Is an E-payment System?

An e-payment system is a way of making transactions or paying for goods and services through an electronic medium, without the use of checks or cash. It’s also called an electronic payment system or online payment system. Read on to learn more.

The electronic payment system has grown increasingly over the last decades due to the growing spread of internet-based banking and shopping. As the world advances more with technology development, we can see the rise of electronic payment systems and payment processing devices. As these increase, improve, and provide ever more secure online payment transactions the percentage of check and cash transactions will decrease.

Электронные кошельки – что это и список лучших

Система электронных платежей – это денежные переводы по интернету. В отличие от банковских карт VISA или MASTER CARD, данные переводы осуществляются вне банковского контроля. Для хранения этих денег создаются специальные идентификационные ячейки – электронные кошельки. В этой статье мы поговорим о том что такое электронные кошельки, как их создавать, как пополнять и выводить деньги и в чем их суть.

Что такое Электронный кошелек

В настоящее время электронный кошелек является тем инструментом, с помощью которого можно полноценно жить, не имея обычного кошелька. Разница лишь в том, что единицей расчета являются не реальные бумажки, а электронные деньги, которые размещаются на балансе определенных организаций – операторов электронных денежных средств. Внутри такой структуры для каждого клиента создается кошелек с уникальным идентификатором, в котором и будут храниться средства – реальные деньги, только в электронном виде, подобно карточке VISA.

Cчета в электронно-платежных системах (ЭПС) открываются в любых валютах (рубли, доллары, евро и т.д.), на вашем счету могут быть открыты отдельные счета в разных валютах, а конвертация между ними будет проходить по банковскому курсу. По сути это те же деньги, но имеющие силу только в интернете, где и происходит весь их оборот. Они могут выражаться в разной валюте и быть успешно обмененными на реальные деньги.

У любой платежной системы есть своя комиссия за проведение тех или иных операций. Собственно, это и является их основным доходом.

Суть электронных кошельков

Глобальная система электронных платежей имеет широту и функционал сродни банковской, представляющей основу экономики любого государства. Сейчас весь интернет-бизнес и он-лайн коммерция работает только благодаря такому сервису. Самыми популярными представителями этого направления являются QIWI, WebMoney, Яндекс.Деньги, Skrill (Moneybookers), PayPal и некоторые другие.

Суть электронных кошельков состоит в том, что они позволяют не только оплатить товар или услугу, но и заработать денег, получить деньги и перевести их. Система всех ЭПС работает по схеме ввода/вывода средств, что позволяет совершать разные расчетные операции и превращать электронные средства в осязаемые.

  • В сети огромное количество тех, кто получает доход от фриланс-деятельности, которая оплачивается удаленно в электронном виде.
  • Кто-то зарабатывает на обмене денег, например вам нужно с Вэбмани перевести средсвта на Яндекс.Деньги.
  • Если вы заведете себе сайт и будете зарабатывать на рекламе, то скорее всего деньги будут приходить к вам на электронный кошелек, который вы сами укажете.

Даже если вы не работаете по интернету, вам может пригодится электронный кошелек при покупках, например, курсы по игре на гитаре можно купить через систему Яндекс.Деньги.

Как и какой электронный кошелек выбрать

Перед тем как выбрать электронный кошелек того или иного поставщика валютных электронных услуг, нужно ознакомиться с их возможностями и преимуществами. Каждая платежная система характеризуется степенью простоты использования, функциональности, масштабности применения.

Для многих пользователей лучший электронный кошелек – это тот, который быстро и понятно регистрируется, и функции ввода/вывода средств которого устроены самым незамысловатым и доступным способом.

Что значит распространенность?

Здесь речь идет о количестве интернет ресурсов, которые принимают к оплате валюту конкретной ЭПС, а также терминалы оплаты, работающие с ней, в целом чем популярнее ЭПС, тем повсеместнее вы сможете ей пользоваться.

Ну и функциональность, сюда относится все, что касается набора инструментов для работы с кошельком и дополнительных опций. Это в первую очередь способы ввода/вывода средств, возможная валюта электронного кошелька, работа систем безопасности, активная служба поддержки, комиссия и т.д.

Чтобы определить, какой электронный кошелек лучше, подумайте, как и где вы хотите его использовать. В некоторых случаях лучше создать кошелек в нескольких платежных системах.

Тем более что за его создание и обслуживание не взимается никаких плат.

Как создать электронный кошелек

После того как выбрана электронная система, можно переходить к регистрации кошелька. Для этого понадобится скан паспорта и несколько минут времени.

У каждого поставщика электронных платежных услуг есть свой сайт, у QIWI – это https://qiwi.com, у WebMoney – https://www.webmoney.ru, у PayPal – https://www.paypal.com/ru, у Яндекс.Деньги – это https://money.yandex.ru и т.д. Собственно, это самые популярные на постсоветском пространстве платежные системы.

Пройдя по ссылке, вы попадете на главную страницу, где имеется доступ к пункту «регистрация» или «создать кошелек». Чтобы получить электронный кошелек, нужно зарегистрировать аккаунт, внеся в анкету всю требующуюся информацию о себе. Здесь, в зависимости от ЭПС, могут потребоваться ФИО, паспортные данные, телефон, адрес электронной почты – важно вносить реальную информацию, действующую почту и номер телефона, так как на них будут приходить коды для подтверждения переводов, а также это ваша безопасность.

Если все поля заполнены верно, то останется нажать кнопку «создать», после чего система запросит подтвердить операцию кодом из сообщения или активировать ссылку, присланную на ваш e-mail. После окончательного подтверждения всех сведений, аккаунт активируется, и владелец получает уникальный номер своего кошелька.

Даже если кошелек уже создан, нелишним будет еще раз ознакомиться с тарифами ЭПС. Как мы уже говорили, обслуживание и создание платежного аккаунта является процедурой бесплатной и бессрочной, а вот перевод денег идет с процентной или фиксированной комиссией.

Как завести электронный кошелек уже определились, а теперь разберем как им пользоваться. Рассмотрим основной функционал по вводу и выводу денег и переводам.

Как пополнить электронный кошелек

Если действия по созданию электронного кошелька понадобились только для получения вознаграждения за работу по интернету, то этот пункт можно пропустить. Хотя и в таком случае подобная информация лишней не будет. Итак, после того, как был открыт электронный кошелек, его можно пополнить. Для этого предусмотрены следующие варианты:

  • Пополнить электронный кошелек наличным платежом. Необходимо дойти до ближайшего пункта приема платежей или терминала, в котором будет осуществлен формальный обмен валюты на электронные деньги с зачислением их на счет кошелька.
  • Пополнить электронный кошелек платежной картой. Надо купить в ближайшем пункте продаж (киоски, офисы мобильных операторов, магазины и т.д.) карту нужного поставщика электронных услуг и активировать ее в вашем аккаунте, следуя подсказкам. Но к номиналу карты, при покупке, добавляется комиссия продавца. Поэтому это не самый дешевый способ и если честно неудобный.
  • Ввести средства на электронный кошелек картой или банковским переводом. Тут нужно воспользоваться картой в терминале, который осуществляет такую функцию, и зачислить деньги. Хотя можно довериться работе интернет-банкинга, такого как Сбербанк онлайн, и осуществить перевод на этом сайте. Также прямо на сайте вашей ЭПС, можно пополнить деньги с карты онлайн, просто пройдя по ссылкам инструкции. Если вам нужен банковский перевод, то в личном кабинете вы можете взять реквизиты для пополнений электронного счета.
  • Можно пользоваться услугами другой платежной системы через специальные обменники, например – bestchange.ru.

Оплата электронными кошельками

После того, как сделано пополнение электронного кошелька, эти средства можно использовать. Оплату виртуальными денежными знаками принимают сайты различных интернет-магазинов. Ими оплачивают мобильную связь, кредиты, коммунальные услуги и прочие сервисы. Большинство пользователей используют ЭПС вместо банковских счетов, принимая переводы за оказанные услуги или проданные товары. К примеру, вы продали матрешку в Канаду, покупатель оплатил вам по PayPal – вам не потребовалось показывать ему свои реквизиты, имя, фамилию, телефон… В то же время канадцу не пришлось показывать вам данные своей банковской карты.

В общем такие функции и обеспечивает популярность этим платежным системам, потому что предоставляет огромные возможности по взаиморасчетам в сети, не выходя из дома.

Как выводить деньги с электронного кошелька

Вывод денег с электронных кошельков можно производить «под ноль» или частично. Для этого можно воспользоваться следующими способами:

  • Выводить деньги на банковскую карту. Чтобы на эту карту можно было выводить деньги с электронного кошелька мгновенно, в личном кабинете вашей ЭПС нужно добавить ее к аккаунту. Часто для подтверждения подлинности карты, система снимает с нее 1 цент с примечанием к переводу, в котором отправляет код подтверждения. Эти данные вы можете узнать в вашем банке или через ваш аккаунт интернет банкинга.
  • Выводить средства банковским переводом. Этот пункт более сложный, но по комиссии самый экономичный (примерно 1%). Нужно создать платежное поручение с указанием всех необходимых реквизитов счета. Недостатком является скорость вывода, так как заявка обрабатывается в течении трех дней, и на сам банковский перевод может уйти до 7 дней.
  • Воспользоваться услугами пунктов электронных платежей или терминалом. Для этой операции заранее нужно получить пароль в своем аккаунте. Комиссия составит порядка 3-5%.
  • Вы можете обналичивать деньги в самом офисе ЭПС, особенно это не будет проблемой для жителей больших городов, где сосредоточены такие офисы. Например на сайте WebMoney вы можете узнать адреса сертифицированных пунктов по выводу денег во всех городах по всему миру.

Обзоры лучших электронных кошельков

Когда смысл существования системы электронных платежей стал понятен, перед тем как создать электронный кошелек самое время рассмотреть наиболее популярных и лучших представителей этой сферы услуг.

Электронный кошелек QIWI

Одним из лучших электронных кошельков является ЭПС QIWI. Эта международная платежная электронная система функционирует с 2007 года. В 2008 году был утвержден бренд, который и по сей день сохраняется. В 2020 году платежная система была названа «QIWI Кошелек», которая до этого именовалась как «Мобильный кошелек». А уж после принятия соглашения о глобальном сотрудничестве в 2020 году с VISA эта ЭПС преобразовалась в Visa QIWI Wallet. Такой мы ее теперь и знаем.

Популярность ее связана с возможностью использовать электронный кошелек на телефоне, установив мобильное приложение, а логином будет номер вашего телефона.

Итак, сегодня электронный кошелек киви – это уникальный ресурс моментальных платежей. Среди его возможностей и преимуществ есть такие как:

  • Оплата услуг интернет и ТВ провайдеров, сотовых операторов, стационарных телефонов, услуг ЖКХ и различных он-лайн сервисов.
  • Открытие собственной банковской карты VISA QIWI Wallet, привязанной к кошельку.
  • Возможность создания кошелька в 4-х валютах. По умолчанию кошелек при регистрации будет рублевым, но потом можно сделать его одновременно еще и в долларах, евро и казахстанских тенге.
  • Комиссия за большинство денежных операций минимальная (1,5-2%).

Чтобы начать пользоваться услугами через электронный кошелек QIWI, нужно открыть главную страницу ЭПС, ввести номер телефона и нажать кнопку «создать кошелек». На указанный телефон поступит смс с кодом. Телефонный номер и будет логином для входа в аккаунт.

Ввод денег на QIWI кошелек

Чтобы пополнить счет есть несколько способов:

  • c помощью банковской карты;
  • через терминалы оплаты как собственные, так и партнеров;
  • в банкоматах большинства российских банков;
  • при помощи интернет-банкинга (сервис Сбербанк он-лайн);
  • совершив банковский перевод, создав платежное поручение;
  • дойти до любого салона связи (Евросеть, Связной, Мегафон, МТС и т.д.);
  • через кошельки других поставщиков электронных услуг (Яндекс, Вебмани и т.д.);
  • воспользоваться услугами систем денежных переводов (Юнистрим, Contact)
  • сделать перевод со своего телефонного номера.

В большинстве случаев комиссия отсутствует, за исключением ввода с мобильного телефона (максимум у YOTA – 6%) или денежного перевода (в среднем 2%).

  • Перевод на счет в банке или карты Visa, Mastercard или Maestro. Комиссия 1,5- на счет от суммы, но не менее 50 руб, и 2% – на карту. Максимальная сумма для перевода – 15 тыс. руб.
  • Наличными можно вывести через системы денежных переводов Юнистрим, Privat Money, Contact, WesternUnion. Комиссия также от 1,5 до 2%.
  • Воспользоваться услугами почты России. Комиссия 2, 5% + 60 руб.
  • Выпустить пластиковую карту Visa, привязанную к аккаунту в системе QIWI. С ее помощью можно оплачивать и снимать деньги в любых банкомата, которые сотрудничают с VISA.

Электронный кошелек WebMoney

Лучшая электронная платежная система WebMoney была создана в 1998 году, и логотипом ее стал подмигивающий муравей. На сегодняшний день в этой системе зарегистрировано свыше 28 млн. кошельков. Известно, что третья часть всех электронных платежных аккаунтов в России пользуется именно этой системой. Поэтому организована русскоговорящая служба технической поддержки в круглосуточном режиме по телефону +74957272007 или по почте [email protected]

Электронный кошелек вебмани можно открыть в нескольких валютах, и для каждой из них есть свой денежный знак – идентификатор, номер кошелька начинается с латинской буквы, которая означает валюту счета, например долларовые кошельки начинаются на букву Z, а рублевые на букву R. По интернету эти счета обозначаются как WMZ, WMR и так далее, что означает WebMoney в долларах, рублях…

  • 1 WMR = 1 рублю
  • 1 WMZ = 1 доллару США
  • 1 WME = 1 евро
  • 1 WMU = 1 гривне

Подобная идентификация позволяет осуществлять расчетные и обменные операции. Кроме этого система предоставляет возможность работать одновременно с несколькими валютами.

Основными преимуществами, из-за которых электронный кошелек WebMoney пользуется такой популярностью, являются:

  • простая первоначальная регистрация, позволяющая сразу работать со многими сервисами;
  • огромный функционал – возможность работать только с браузера, с телефона, с компьютера;
  • WebMoney выпускает собственные банковские карты;
  • возможность оформить займ на электронный кошелек!
  • Сложные системы защиты паролей и персональных данных – ключи в виде файлов, подключение систем безопасности E-NUM и другие способы.

Как вывести деньги с WebMoney

Изъять средства с кошелька можно несколькими вариантами:

  • Вывести деньги на карту банковскую. Комиссия составит 1%. Но вывод можно сделать только той валюты, в которой оформлена карта.
  • Через систему денежных переводов (Золота корона, Юнистрим, Контакт, Лидер и др). Выводить можно только с рублевых кошельков на территории РФ. Комиссия 0,5-3%.
  • С помощью обменных пунктов – офисы в вашем городе.
  • Можно открыть расчетные карты WebMoneyCards. На территории РФ функционируют Maestro, MasterCard Standard. Комиссия 0,6 + 0,8%.

Как пополнить кошелек WebMoney

  • банковской картой (комиссия 2-2,5%);
  • с помощью почты (2,2%);
  • через терминалы оплаты (1%);
  • с мобильного телефона (6-12%);
  • карты оплаты (0%);
  • через банкоматы (1-3%);
  • в отделениях банка (1-6%);
  • в обменных пунктах вебмани (0-4%).

Электронный кошелек Яндекс.Деньги

Система электронных платежей Яндекс.Деньги создана на базе известной российской поисковой системы в 2002 году. Очень удобный и простой сервис по оплате услуг, обмену и переводу виртуальных денег. Как и у других систем, у этой есть мобильное приложение и рабочий сайт.

Яндекс.Деньги создавалась для совершения моментальных платежей между ее пользователями. А все пользователи – это резиденты РФ, поэтому единственной валютой кошелька стал российский рубль. Но зато система не берет комиссий за пополнение счета и оплату услуг сотрудничающих с ним интернет-ресурсов. А при совершении перевода, комиссия составит всего 0,5%. Для пользователей предпочитающих только рубли – это самый выгодный кошелек.

Регистрация в Яндекс.Деньги

Чтобы зарегистрироваться, нужно иметь аккаунт в Яндексе и нажать кнопку «открыть кошелек». Далее введите логин и пароль, укажите номер телефона и код, который придет в сообщении. Автоматически кошелек будет анонимным. Это значит, что хранить на нем можно не более 15 тыс.руб. и совершать платеж не более этой суммы. Для получения более широкого функционала нужно получить именной статус – требуется предоставить полные паспортные данные.

Ввод денег с Яндекса

Внести деньги на счет кошелька можно одним из вариантов:

  • воспользовавшись терминалом оплаты;
  • через интернет-банкинг;
  • произвести оплату через банкомат какого-нибудь банка наличными или картой;
  • предоплаченными картами (Яндекс.Деньги или универсальные);
  • совершить денежный перевод через одну из систем Контакт, Юнистрим, Anelic и т.д.;
  • сделать платеж с кошелька другого пользователя.

Вывод денег с Яндекса

Воспользоваться функцией вывода средств можно несколькими способами:

  • Сделать перевод на карту любого банка. Здесь предусмотрена комиссия 3% + 15 руб., а деньги поступают в течение 3-х рабочих дней.
  • Воспользоваться одной из систем денежных переводов (Контакт, Юнистрим, Western Union и т.д.).
  • Оформить расчетную карту Яндекс.Деньги, которая позволит расплачиваться и снимать наличные в любом банкомате, где есть поддержка MasterCard и считывающее устройство PayPass. Карта выпускается бесплатно сроком на 3 года, и за весь период обслуживание будет стоить 149 руб.
  • Перевести на банковский счет по реквизитам. Платеж идет 3 рабочих дня.
  • Есть функция ускоренного перевода через банки-партнеры: «Альфа Банк», «Тинькофф», «Промсвязьбанк», «Банк Открытие». Транзакция выполняется в течение 5 минут.

Электронный кошелек PayPal

PayPal – это самая крупная электронная платежная система. Начала свою работу в 1998 году благодаря своим создателям Питеру Сиел и Максу Левчин. В 2002 году стала собственностью компании eBay, кстати сказать, благодаря которой и приобрела в самом начале массовую популярность. Создавалась она сначала, как система оплаты покупок в интернете. А сейчас через нее проходит более 4 млрд транзакций в год в более чем 200 странах при использовании 25 различных валют.

Основной функционал кошелька:

  • совершение покупок в интернете и оплата услуг;
  • привязка карт формата Visa, MasterCard,American Express, Discover, в т.ч. российских банков;
  • перевод денежных средств;
  • ввод/вывод денег.

Вам будет предложено на выбор 2 варианта счета личный или корпоративный. Первый подходит для интернет-покупок и оплаты платежей, а второй для ведения интернет-бизнеса. Если выбран личный счет то заполняется информация о себе и нажимается кнопка «соглашаюсь и открываю счет», если выбран корпоративный, то нужно будет предоставить информацию о вашей фирме. Логином и номером вашего кошелька будет адрес вашего email.

  • Ввод средств осуществляется через банковские карты или обменные пункты.
  • Вывод на карту MasterCard, Visa, Discover, American Express.
Вместо вывода

Подводя итог, можно сказать, что для российских пользователей самыми удобными будут система Яндекс.Деньги и WebMoney. Первая из-за простоты и небольших комиссий, а вторая из-за своей распространенности и защищенности. QIWI также будет в списке лидеров из-за многообразия способов ввода и вывода средств. Ну а PayPal подойдет для активной деятельности на международных площадках.

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