Discover the differences between Put options and Call options

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Essential Options Trading Guide

Options trading may seem overwhelming at first, but it’s easy to understand if you know a few key points. Investor portfolios are usually constructed with several asset classes. These may be stocks, bonds, ETFs, and even mutual funds. Options are another asset class, and when used correctly, they offer many advantages that trading stocks and ETFs alone cannot.

Key Takeaways

  • An option is a contract giving the buyer the right, but not the obligation, to buy (in the case of a call) or sell (in the case of a put) the underlying asset at a specific price on or before a certain date.
  • People use options for income, to speculate, and to hedge risk.
  • Options are known as derivatives because they derive their value from an underlying asset.
  • A stock option contract typically represents 100 shares of the underlying stock, but options may be written on any sort of underlying asset from bonds to currencies to commodities.

Option

What Are Options?

Options are contracts that give the bearer the right, but not the obligation, to either buy or sell an amount of some underlying asset at a pre-determined price at or before the contract expires.   Options can be purchased like most other asset classes with brokerage investment accounts. 

Options are powerful because they can enhance an individual’s portfolio. They do this through added income, protection, and even leverage. Depending on the situation, there is usually an option scenario appropriate for an investor’s goal. A popular example would be using options as an effective hedge against a declining stock market to limit downside losses. Options can also be used to generate recurring income. Additionally, they are often used for speculative purposes such as wagering on the direction of a stock. 

There is no free lunch with stocks and bonds. Options are no different. Options trading involves certain risks that the investor must be aware of before making a trade. This is why, when trading options with a broker, you usually see a disclaimer similar to the following:

Options involve risks and are not suitable for everyone. Options trading can be speculative in nature and carry substantial risk of loss.

Options as Derivatives

Options belong to the larger group of securities known as derivatives. A derivative’s price is dependent on or derived from the price of something else. As an example, wine is a derivative of grapes ketchup is a derivative of tomatoes, and a stock option is a derivative of a stock. Options are derivatives of financial securities—their value depends on the price of some other asset. Examples of derivatives include calls, puts, futures, forwards, swaps, and mortgage-backed securities, among others.

Call and Put Options

Options are a type of derivative security. An option is a derivative because its price is intrinsically linked to the price of something else. If you buy an options contract, it grants you the right, but not the obligation to buy or sell an underlying asset at a set price on or before a certain date.

A call option gives the holder the right to buy a stock and a put option gives the holder the right to sell a stock. Think of a call option as a down-payment for a future purpose. 

Call Option Example

A potential homeowner sees a new development going up. That person may want the right to purchase a home in the future, but will only want to exercise that right once certain developments around the area are built.

The potential home buyer would benefit from the option of buying or not. Imagine they can buy a call option from the developer to buy the home at say $400,000 at any point in the next three years. Well, they can—you know it as a non-refundable deposit. Naturally, the developer wouldn’t grant such an option for free. The potential home buyer needs to contribute a down-payment to lock in that right.

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With respect to an option, this cost is known as the premium. It is the price of the option contract. In our home example, the deposit might be $20,000 that the buyer pays the developer. Let’s say two years have passed, and now the developments are built and zoning has been approved. The home buyer exercises the option and buys the home for $400,000 because that is the contract purchased.

The market value of that home may have doubled to $800,000. But because the down payment locked in a pre-determined price, the buyer pays $400,000. Now, in an alternate scenario, say the zoning approval doesn’t come through until year four. This is one year past the expiration of this option. Now the home buyer must pay the market price because the contract has expired. In either case, the developer keeps the original $20,000 collected.

Call Option Basics

Put Option Example

Now, think of a put option as an insurance policy. If you own your home, you are likely familiar with purchasing homeowner’s insurance. A homeowner buys a homeowner’s policy to protect their home from damage. They pay an amount called the premium, for some amount of time, let’s say a year. The policy has a face value and gives the insurance holder protection in the event the home is damaged.

What if, instead of a home, your asset was a stock or index investment? Similarly, if an investor wants insurance on his/her S&P 500 index portfolio, they can purchase put options. An investor may fear that a bear market is near and may be unwilling to lose more than 10% of their long position in the S&P 500 index. If the S&P 500 is currently trading at $2500, he/she can purchase a put option giving the right to sell the index at $2250, for example, at any point in the next two years.

If in six months the market crashes by 20% (500 points on the index), he or she has made 250 points by being able to sell the index at $2250 when it is trading at $2000—a combined loss of just 10%. In fact, even if the market drops to zero, the loss would only be 10% if this put option is held. Again, purchasing the option will carry a cost (the premium), and if the market doesn’t drop during that period, the maximum loss on the option is just the premium spent.

Put Option Basics

Buying, Selling Calls/Puts

There are four things you can do with options:

  1. Buy calls
  2. Sell calls
  3. Buy puts
  4. Sell puts

Buying stock gives you a long position. Buying a call option gives you a potential long position in the underlying stock. Short-selling a stock gives you a short position. Selling a naked or uncovered call gives you a potential short position in the underlying stock.

Buying a put option gives you a potential short position in the underlying stock. Selling a naked, or unmarried, put gives you a potential long position in the underlying stock. Keeping these four scenarios straight is crucial.

People who buy options are called holders and those who sell options are called writers of options. Here is the important distinction between holders and writers:

  1. Call holders and put holders (buyers) are not obligated to buy or sell. They have the choice to exercise their rights. This limits the risk of buyers of options to only the premium spent.
  2. Call writers and put writers (sellers), however, are obligated to buy or sell if the option expires in-the-money (more on that below). This means that a seller may be required to make good on a promise to buy or sell. It also implies that option sellers have exposure to more, and in some cases, unlimited, risks. This means writers can lose much more than the price of the options premium.   

Why Use Options

Speculation

Speculation is a wager on future price direction. A speculator might think the price of a stock will go up, perhaps based on fundamental analysis or technical analysis. A speculator might buy the stock or buy a call option on the stock. Speculating with a call option—instead of buying the stock outright—is attractive to some traders since options provide leverage. An out-of-the-money call option may only cost a few dollars or even cents compared to the full price of a $100 stock.

Hedging

Options were really invented for hedging purposes. Hedging with options is meant to reduce risk at a reasonable cost. Here, we can think of using options like an insurance policy. Just as you insure your house or car, options can be used to insure your investments against a downturn.

Imagine that you want to buy technology stocks. But you also want to limit losses. By using put options, you could limit your downside risk and enjoy all the upside in a cost-effective way. For short sellers, call options can be used to limit losses if wrong—especially during a short squeeze.

How Options Work

In terms of valuing option contracts, it is essentially all about determining the probabilities of future price events. The more likely something is to occur, the more expensive an option would be that profits from that event. For instance, a call value goes up as the stock (underlying) goes up. This is the key to understanding the relative value of options.

The less time there is until expiry, the less value an option will have. This is because the chances of a price move in the underlying stock diminish as we draw closer to expiry. This is why an option is a wasting asset. If you buy a one-month option that is out of the money, and the stock doesn’t move, the option becomes less valuable with each passing day. Since time is a component to the price of an option, a one-month option is going to be less valuable than a three-month option. This is because with more time available, the probability of a price move in your favor increases, and vice versa.

Accordingly, the same option strike that expires in a year will cost more than the same strike for one month. This wasting feature of options is a result of time decay. The same option will be worth less tomorrow than it is today if the price of the stock doesn’t move. 

Volatility also increases the price of an option. This is because uncertainty pushes the odds of an outcome higher. If the volatility of the underlying asset increases, larger price swings increase the possibilities of substantial moves both up and down. Greater price swings will increase the chances of an event occurring. Therefore, the greater the volatility, the greater the price of the option. Options trading and volatility are intrinsically linked to each other in this way. 

On most U.S. exchanges, a stock option contract is the option to buy or sell 100 shares; that’s why you must multiply the contract premium by 100 to get the total amount you’ll have to spend to buy the call.

What happened to our option investment
May 1 May 21 Expiry Date
Stock Price $67 $78 $62
Option Price $3.15 $8.25 worthless
Contract Value $315 $825 $0
Paper Gain/Loss $0 $510 -$315

The majority of the time, holders choose to take their profits by trading out (closing out) their position. This means that option holders sell their options in the market, and writers buy their positions back to close. Only about 10% of options are exercised, 60% are traded (closed) out, and 30% expire worthlessly.

Fluctuations in option prices can be explained by intrinsic value and extrinsic value, which is also known as time value. An option’s premium is the combination of its intrinsic value and time value. Intrinsic value is the in-the-money amount of an options contract, which, for a call option, is the amount above the strike price that the stock is trading. Time value represents the added value an investor has to pay for an option above the intrinsic value.   This is the extrinsic value or time value. So, the price of the option in our example can be thought of as the following:

Premium = Intrinsic Value + Time Value
$8.25 $8.00 $0.25

In real life, options almost always trade at some level above their intrinsic value, because the probability of an event occurring is never absolutely zero, even if it is highly unlikely.

Types of Options

American and European Options

American options can be exercised at any time between the date of purchase and the expiration date. European options are different from American options in that they can only be exercised at the end of their lives on their expiration date. The distinction between American and European options has nothing to do with geography, only with early exercise. Many options on stock indexes are of the European type.   Because the right to exercise early has some value, an American option typically carries a higher premium than an otherwise identical European option. This is because the early exercise feature is desirable and commands a premium.

There are also exotic options, which are exotic because there might be a variation on the payoff profiles from the plain vanilla options. Or they can become totally different products all together with “optionality” embedded in them. For example, binary options have a simple payoff structure that is determined if the payoff event happens regardless of the degree. Other types of exotic options include knock-out, knock-in, barrier options, lookback options, Asian options, and Bermudan options.   Again, exotic options are typically for professional derivatives traders.

Options Expiration & Liquidity

Options can also be categorized by their duration. Short-term options are those that expire generally within a year. Long-term options with expirations greater than a year are classified as long-term equity anticipation securities or LEAPs. LEAPS are identical to regular options, they just have longer durations.

Options can also be distinguished by when their expiration date falls. Sets of options now expire weekly on each Friday, at the end of the month, or even on a daily basis. Index and ETF options also sometimes offer quarterly expiries. 

Reading Options Tables

More and more traders are finding option data through online sources. (For related reading, see “Best Online Stock Brokers for Options Trading 2020”) While each source has its own format for presenting the data, the key components generally include the following variables:

  • Volume (VLM) simply tells you how many contracts of a particular option were traded during the latest session.
  • The “bid” price is the latest price level at which a market participant wishes to buy a particular option.
  • The “ask” price is the latest price offered by a market participant to sell a particular option.
  • Implied Bid Volatility (IMPL BID VOL) can be thought of as the future uncertainty of price direction and speed. This value is calculated by an option-pricing model such as the Black-Scholes model and represents the level of expected future volatility based on the current price of the option.
  • Open Interest (OPTN OP) number indicates the total number of contracts of a particular option that have been opened. Open interest decreases as open trades are closed.
  • Delta can be thought of as a probability. For instance, a 30-delta option has roughly a 30% chance of expiring in-the-money.
  • Gamma (GMM) is the speed the option is moving in or out-of-the-money. Gamma can also be thought of as the movement of the delta.
  • Vega is a Greek value that indicates the amount by which the price of the option would be expected to change based on a one-point change in implied volatility.
  • Theta is the Greek value that indicates how much value an option will lose with the passage of one day’s time.
  • The “strike price” is the price at which the buyer of the option can buy or sell the underlying security if he/she chooses to exercise the option. 

Buying at the bid and selling at the ask is how market makers make their living.

Long Calls/Puts

The simplest options position is a long call (or put) by itself. This position profits if the price of the underlying rises (falls), and your downside is limited to loss of the option premium spent. If you simultaneously buy a call and put option with the same strike and expiration, you’ve created a straddle.

This position pays off if the underlying price rises or falls dramatically; however, if the price remains relatively stable, you lose premium on both the call and the put. You would enter this strategy if you expect a large move in the stock but are not sure which direction.   

Basically, you need the stock to have a move outside of a range. A similar strategy betting on an outsized move in the securities when you expect high volatility (uncertainty) is to buy a call and buy a put with different strikes and the same expiration—known as a strangle. A strangle requires larger price moves in either direction to profit but is also less expensive than a straddle. On the other hand, being short either a straddle or a strangle (selling both options) would profit from a market that doesn’t move much.   

Below is an explanation of straddles from my Options for Beginners course:

Straddles Academy

And here’s a description of strangles:

How to use Straddle Strategies

Spreads & Combinations

Spreads use two or more options positions of the same class. They combine having a market opinion (speculation) with limiting losses (hedging). Spreads often limit potential upside as well. Yet these strategies can still be desirable since they usually cost less when compared to a single options leg. Vertical spreads involve selling one option to buy another. Generally, the second option is the same type and same expiration, but a different strike.

A bull call spread, or bull call vertical spread, is created by buying a call and simultaneously selling another call with a higher strike price and the same expiration. The spread is profitable if the underlying asset increases in price, but the upside is limited due to the short call strike. The benefit, however, is that selling the higher strike call reduces the cost of buying the lower one.   Similarly, a bear put spread, or bear put vertical spread, involves buying a put and selling a second put with a lower strike and the same expiration. If you buy and sell options with different expirations, it is known as a calendar spread or time spread. 

Spread

Combinations are trades constructed with both a call and a put. There is a special type of combination known as a “synthetic.” The point of a synthetic is to create an options position that behaves like an underlying asset, but without actually controlling the asset. Why not just buy the stock? Maybe some legal or regulatory reason restricts you from owning it. But you may be allowed to create a synthetic position using options.   

Butterflies

A butterfly consists of options at three strikes, equally spaced apart, where all options are of the same type (either all calls or all puts) and have the same expiration. In a long butterfly, the middle strike option is sold and the outside strikes are bought in a ratio of 1:2:1 (buy one, sell two, buy one).

If this ratio does not hold, it is not a butterfly. The outside strikes are commonly referred to as the wings of the butterfly, and the inside strike as the body. The value of a butterfly can never fall below zero. Closely related to the butterfly is the condor – the difference is that the middle options are not at the same strike price. 

Options Risks

Because options prices can be modeled mathematically with a model such as the Black-Scholes, many of the risks associated with options can also be modeled and understood. This particular feature of options actually makes them arguably less risky than other asset classes, or at least allows the risks associated with options to be understood and evaluated. Individual risks have been assigned Greek letter names, and are sometimes referred to simply as “the Greeks.” 

Below is a very basic way to begin thinking about the concepts of Greeks:

Difference between Call Options and Put Options

There are two types of options:

A call option gives you the right, but not obligation, to buy the underlying asset.

A put option gives you the right, but not obligation, to sell the underlying asset.

Four Basic Option Trades

Besides two types of options, there are two sides to every option trade: you can buy an option, or you can sell an option.

Therefore, the are four things you can do with options:

  • Buy a call option (makes you “long call“)
  • Sell a call option (makes you “short call“)
  • Buy a put option (makes you “long put“)
  • Sell a put option (makes you “short put“)

Buying a call option is not the same thing as selling a put option, and buying a put is different from selling a call. These positions are all very different. They differ in two dimensions:

  • Whether you buy or sell the underlying asset.
  • Whether you have the right (but not obligation) or obligation (but not right).

Call Option Buyer and Seller Positions

While a call option buyer gets the right, but not obligation, to buy the underlying asset at the option’s strike price, the call option seller (the other party of the option trade) takes an obligation to sell the underlying asset to the call option buyer if the buyer chooses to exercise the option.

While an option buyer has a right but not obligation, an option seller has the opposite position: obligation but not right. The option seller’s outcome depends on the option buyer’s will.

Put Option Buyer and Seller Positions

A put option buyer has the right, but not obligation to sell the underlying asset for the strike price, while the put option seller has the obligation to buy the underlying asset from the put option buyer, if the option buyer chooses to exercise the option.

Overview

If the above seems confusing, remember there are two different securities involved: the option and the underlying security.

Here is a summary:

  • Call option buyer has right to buy underlying.
  • Call option seller has obligation to sell underlying.
  • Put option buyer has right to sell underlying.
  • Put option seller has obligation to buy underlying.
  • Option buyers have right.
  • Option sellers have obligation.
  • With call options, direction is the same for the option and the underlying (call buyer buys underlying, call seller sells underlying).
  • With put options, direction is opposite (put buyer sells underlying, put seller buys underlying).

Puts vs. Calls

Allyson Brooks
Contributor, Benzinga

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Puts and calls are short names for put options and call options. When you own options, they give you the right to buy or sell an underlying instrument.

You buy the underlying at a certain price, called a strike price, and you pay a premium to buy it. The premium is the price of an option and it depends on its expiration, implied volatility, dividend date, interest rate and on a distance of the strike price from the market price of the underlying.

Main Takeaways: Puts vs. Calls in Options Trading

  • To put it simply, the purchase of put options allow you to sell at a strike price and the purchase call options allow you to buy at a strike price.
  • If used properly, they both offer options traders protection, leverage and potential for higher profits.
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What is a Put Option?

A purchase of a put option allows you the right to sell the underlying at a strike price. You can use puts to protect a long position from a price decline, but you can also use them even if you don’t own an underlying.

Here’s an example: Apple Inc. currently trades at $186.87. One put option in Apple with a strike of 185 and the July 6 expiration costs around $3 per share and it covers 100 shares.

You’ll have to pay $300 for one put. And, if you do that, your long position in Apple will be protected until July 6. With the purchase, you would limit your potential loss to $4.87 per share until July 6. Do the math by adding the premium of $3 to the difference between the market price and the strike of the put.

If Apple closes at $180 on July 6, you’ll exercise the option. This means that you are going to use the right to sell Apple at $185 and instead of losing $7, you’ll only lose $4.87. If Apple closes at $190 on July 6, your total profit would be $0.13, because you would make $3.13 by owning shares and you would lose the premium you paid for the insurance.

Long Stock, Long Put Payoff

Above is an example of a put option that is almost $2 below the market price. If you want to buy the put whose strike equals the market price, you would have to pay a higher premium. The July 6, 187.50 strike put in Apple costs around $4. You have probably noticed that the strike is not the same as the market price.

T his is because the example uses exchange-traded options. The exchange-traded options are standardized, so they don’t have a strike price for every market price. To get this, you would have to go off-exchange and buy an over-the-counter option. There are brokers that specialize in this type of trading and offer such contracts.

You don’t have to own the stock to trade puts. You could buy the July 6, 185 strike put, without owning shares of Apple. If in a week the stock trades to 185, your put would be worth more than $3 and you could sell it with profit. You can use this calculator to get the value of a put with 29 days till expiration and with the underlying market price of $185. The simulation shows that the price of the put would jump to $3.60, which means 20% profit on your trade.

You can trade puts like that even if you own the stock, but you won’t get a full compensation for the move of the underlying. In this example, the put gained only $0.60 and the stock lost $2.

Your option had a delta of -0.4 when you bought it, which means that it gains 0.4 if the stock declines $1. It also had a theta of -0.05, which means that it loses 0.05 as one day passes. When the stock declined to $185, our simulation showed that put’s delta dropped to -0.5. Investors can also use puts to generate income. If you sell a put, instead of paying a premium, you receive the premium and if the option expires worthless you make a profit.

So in the example, when you paid $3 for the July $185 put and the stock closed at $190 on July 6, the seller collected $3. When the price dropped to $180, the seller of the put had to buy the underlying for $185, but his or hers net price was $182.

What is a Call Option?

A purchase of a call option gets you the right to buy the underlying at the strike price. Instead of owning a stock, you can buy a call option and participate in a potential upside.

Your potential loss is limited to the paid premium and you get unlimited upside potential. If you want to buy the July 6, 190 strike call in Apple, you would have to pay around $2.80 and you would profit if the stock trades above $192.80 at the July 6 expiration.

If Apple closes at $200 on July 6, you exercise the call and buy the stock at $190. Your net price would be $192.80, but you could sell it immediately for $200 and make $7.20 per share. You could choose a different strategy and trade the call you bought before the expiration.

Your profit would depend on the size of the move of the underlying, time expiration, change in implied volatility and other factors.

Long Call Payoff

Just like the put, you can sell calls and generate income. If the price moves against you, you would have to sell the stock to the buyer of a call. If you don’t already own it, you would have to borrow shares and take a short position.

Another popular strategy using calls is a covered call strategy. In this strategy, you own the stock and you sell a call against it. Your selling price is fixed or limited to the sum of the strike of the call and a premium collected, but on the other hand, the premium provides you protection.

Similarities Between Puts and Calls

  • Used for hedging. Puts and calls can be used for hedging. A trader with a long position, concerned about a possible market decline, is going to buy puts, while a trader with a short position, concerned about a sudden price increase, is going to buy calls.
  • Value decays with time. Puts and calls are sensitive to the time expiration. We use theta to measure how much an option is going to lose with an expiration of one day.
  • Sensitive to a change in implied volatility. Implied volatility is expected volatility of the underlying and we use vega to calculate how much is an option going to change with a one percent increase in implied volatility. Higher implied volatility means a higher price for puts and calls and vice versa.
  • Used for long and short positions. If you buy a call you have a long position that should make money in case of an increase in price, but if you sell a call you can lose money in case of a price increase. Traders who own puts have a bearish position and they can make money if the price declines. When we sell puts, we can lose money when price declines.

Differences Between Puts and Calls

  • React differently to a change in the underlying price. We use delta to measure how much the price of an option changes in case of a $1 change in an underlying. Calls have a positive delta which means that they increase in value with an increase in stock price, while puts have a negative delta and they decrease in value with a positive change in an underlying.
  • React differently to a change in interest rates. We measure the effect of a change in interest rates on the price of options with rho. Calls increase in value with higher interest rates, while puts decrease in value.
  • React differently as the dividend date approaches. Calls lose value as we get closer to the dividend date, while puts increase in value.
  • Strike differently affects the value of an option. Calls with a lower strike have a higher value than calls with a higher strike, while puts with a lower strike have a lower value than puts with a higher strike.

Final Thoughts

Puts and calls can be a useful tool for investors and traders. They can offer protection, leverage and a possibility for a higher profit, but they can also be very dangerous when they are not used properly. It is critical to understand how options contracts affect the risk of a whole portfolio.

Want to learn more? Check out Benzinga’s guides to the best options brokers, the best options books, how to trade options and the best options strategies to use.

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